Merck Manual

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Causes of an Enlarged Spleen

Causes of an Enlarged Spleen

Category

Specific Cause

Anemias

Blood cancers and myeloproliferative neoplasms

Infections

Storage diseases

Other causes

  • Blood clot in a vein from the spleen or to the liver

  • Cysts in the spleen

  • External pressure on veins from the spleen or to the liver

  • Felty syndrome (a subset of people with rheumatoid arthritis who also develop low white blood cell count and an enlarged spleen)

  • Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (formerly called Hand-Schüller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease)