Merck Manual

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Unusual Interstitial Lung Diseases

Unusual Interstitial Lung Diseases

Disorder

Symptoms

Treatment

Comments

Slow-developing (over weeks to months) or sudden, severe symptoms

Shortness of breath

Cough

Stopping the drug that is causing symptoms

Corticosteroids (sometimes effective)

Many classes of drugs may cause this disease.

The disease is often more severe in older people.

The effects of some drugs on the lungs are similar to those of systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus).

The extent and severity of the disease are sometimes related to how large the drug dose was and how long the drug was taken.

Alveolar hemorrhage syndromes (bleeding in the lungs)

Most commonly, coughing up blood (hemoptysis)

Anemia due to chronic blood loss

Kidney failure (sometimes)

Corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs (such as cyclophosphamide )

Blood transfusions if needed because of blood loss

Oxygen therapy for a low level of oxygen in the blood

In these rare disorders, blood leaks from small, thin-walled blood vessels (capillaries), often because of an autoimmune reaction.

Massive bleeding can cause death.

Difficulty breathing

Cough

Chest pain

Sometimes coughing up blood

Lung transplantation

Sirolimus

This rare disorder occurs in young women.

It may worsen during pregnancy.