More than half of pregnant women take medicines, drink alcohol, smoke, or use illegal drugs at some time during pregnancy.
Taking certain drugs and medicines while pregnant may hurt your baby or cause a miscarriage Miscarriage Miscarriage is when you lose your baby before 20 weeks of pregnancy. Most miscarriages happen in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Bleeding and cramping are common signs of miscarriage If you... read more
In general, you should avoid medicines during pregnancy unless they're absolutely necessary
Talk to your doctor about which of your medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements are necessary and which ones you shouldn’t take
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy is a major cause of birth defects
Many drugs taken by pregnant women are carried to the baby in the womb by crossing the placenta. The placenta is an organ on the inside of the uterus (womb) that carries blood with oxygen and nutrition to the baby. Drugs can:
Many medicines and vaccines (shots) aren't safe for pregnant women. They can cause birth defects, growth problems, or even death of a baby before or after birth.
On the other hand, there are some medicines and vaccines that are important to take during pregnancy. They prevent health problems that can harm you or your baby. You shouldn't just stop taking these medicines when you get pregnant. You may need to take medicine during pregnancy if you have a disease that can hurt you or your baby, such as:
Talk to your doctor about the medicines and drugs you take:
As soon as you know you're pregnant, tell your doctor
Ask your doctor about the risks and benefits of your prescription medicines so you can decide whether to stop them
Tell your doctor about any vitamins, supplements, and non-prescription (over-the-counter) medicine you take and ask about their risks
Be honest with your doctor about what social drugs and illegal drugs you use
Social drugs include tobacco, alcohol, caffeine, and marijuana (which is legal in some states). Illegal drugs include amphetamines, cocaine, and heroin, among others.
If a medicine you take is risky, doctors can often replace it with a safer medicine. And sometimes even a dangerous medicine is worth taking to treat an even more dangerous illness. For example, you may need to take a medicine called a blood thinner to prevent fatal blood clots. Your doctor will choose the right medicine to keep you and your baby healthy. Always talk with your doctor before stopping, starting, or changing your medicines.
During pregnancy and the first few months of life, your baby is protected against many infections from you (your immune system Overview of the Immune System The immune system is your body's defense system. It helps protect you from illness and infection. The immune system's job is to attack things that don’t belong in your body, including: Germs... read more ). This protection comes to your baby through your bloodstream during pregnancy. If you haven't had all your vaccinations, some are safe to get during pregnancy. However, some vaccines shouldn't be given and some are given only when you have a high risk of infection.
Your doctor will recommend vaccines that are safe to give during your pregnancy:
Women (12 years old and older) who are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant now, or might become pregnant in the future should get the COVID-19 vaccine COVID-19 Vaccine Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines provide protection against COVID-19. COVID-19 is the disease caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. There are multiple COVID-19 vaccines... read more (see also CDC: COVID-19 Vaccines While Pregnant or Breastfeeding).
During flu season, women more than 12 weeks pregnant should get a flu shot
Women who are between 27 and 36 weeks pregnant should get the Tdap vaccine Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine The diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine is a combination vaccine that protects against these three diseases: Diphtheria usually causes inflammation of the throat and mucous membranes... read more (protects against tetanus Tetanus Tetanus results from a toxin produced by the anaerobic bacteria Clostridium tetani. The toxin makes muscles contract involuntarily and become rigid. Tetanus usually develops after a wound or... read more , diphtheria Diphtheria Diphtheria is a contagious, sometimes fatal infection of the upper respiratory tract caused by the gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria (see figure How Bacteria Shape Up) Corynebacterium diphtheriae... read more and pertussis Pertussis Pertussis is a highly contagious infection caused by the gram-negative bacteria Bordetella pertussis, which results in fits of coughing that usually end in a prolonged, high-pitched, deeply... read more , which is whooping cough)
Vaccines that aren't safe during pregnancy include:
Social drugs that can cause problems include:
Alcohol is a leading cause of birth defects. It can cause:
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a set of problems that includes abnormal development of the baby's head and face, brain damage, low intelligence, stunted growth, and other problems. As few as 3 alcoholic drinks a day can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
You shouldn't drink alcohol while pregnant.
Doctors are unclear if caffeine during pregnancy harms a baby. Caffeine is in coffee, some teas, some sodas, energy drinks, chocolate, and some drugs.
Doctors think that caffeine is safe in small amounts, such as one cup of coffee per day.
However, drinking more than 7 cups of coffee per day may cause:
Doctors suggest drinking very little caffeine during pregnancy. You can try decaffeinated drinks instead.
If you smoke cigarettes when pregnant or even breathe in smoke from people who are smoking, it can hurt your baby. It may cause:
You shouldn't smoke at all while pregnant and should avoid being around smoke as much as you can.
Aspartame is an artificial sweetener in some food and drinks and small amounts may be safe during pregnancy. For example, pregnant women should drink less than 1 liter (about 3 cans) of diet soda per day.
However, pregnant women with a disease called phenylketonuria Overview of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders are hereditary metabolic disorders. Hereditary disorders occur when parents pass the defective genes that cause these disorders on to their children. In most... read more shouldn't eat or drink aspartame.
Using illegal drugs during pregnancy can cause serious problems for a pregnant woman and her baby. All illegal drugs and some legal drugs (particularly opioids such as oxycodone), when used too much, increase the chances of a baby being too small or being born too early.
Injecting drugs also increases the chance of a pregnant woman giving her baby infections, such as hepatitis Acute Hepatitis Hepatitis is inflammation (swelling) of your liver. An acute illness is one that comes on quickly and goes away quickly. Acute hepatitis sometimes becomes chronic hepatitis. A chronic illness... read more or HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and AIDS The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a type of virus called a retrovirus. It causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), which is life-threatening. HIV is called an immunodeficiency... read more .
Illegal drugs that can cause problems include:
Using cocaine during pregnancy can narrow blood vessels in the placenta, which can cause:
Women who use cocaine during pregnancy often do other things that can harm their babies, such as smoking, using other drugs, or getting poor medical care. Because of this, doctors aren't sure which problems are caused by the cocaine alone. Still, you shouldn't use cocaine at all while pregnant.
Opioids include medicines (such as oxycodone, methadone, and morphine) that doctors prescribe to relieve pain. Heroin is an illegal opioid that people become addicted to and isn't prescribed by doctors. Using any opioids for a long time during pregnancy may cause:
If you have a severe, painful injury (such as a broken bone or a bad burn), it's probably safe for your doctor to prescribe an opioid for several days. Otherwise, you should avoid using opioids.