Drugs that particularly cause gingival hyperplasia include the following:
Hyperplasia is characterized by diffuse, relatively avascular smooth or nodular enlargement of the gingiva, which may almost cover some teeth. The hypertrophied tissue can often be excised. If possible, substitutions are made for the offending drugs. Scrupulous oral hygiene may minimize recurrence.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma can also originate in the gingiva, causing apparent enlargement of gum tissue.