Merck Manual

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Gingival Hyperplasia

By

James T. Ubertalli

, DMD, Hingham, MA

Last full review/revision May 2022| Content last modified May 2022
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Hyperplasia of gingival tissues without inflammation may occur in response to various drugs.

Drugs that particularly cause gingival hyperplasia include the following:

  • Phenytoin

  • Cyclosporine

  • Nifedipine and other calcium channel blockers

Hyperplasia is characterized by diffuse, relatively avascular smooth or nodular enlargement of the gingiva, which may almost cover some teeth. The hypertrophied tissue can often be excised. If possible, substitutions are made for the offending drugs. Scrupulous oral hygiene may minimize recurrence.

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