(See also Overview of Esophageal and Swallowing Disorders.)
Primary esophageal causes of dysmotility include
Systemic disorders causing esophageal dysmotility include
Many generalized disorders of neuromuscular function (eg, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, Parkinson disease) can affect swallowing but are not typically classified as esophageal motility disorders because they largely cause oropharyngeal dysphagia and not esophageal dysphagia.
Symptoms of esophageal motility disorders depend on the cause but typically include difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), chest pain, and/or heartburn.
Evaluation of esophageal motility disorders depends on the patient's presenting symptoms and may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, barium swallow, esophageal manometry, acid- and reflux-related tests, and/or impedance planimetry. Impedance planimetry is a new technology that simultaneously measures the area across the inside of the esophagus and the pressure inside in the lumen.