Patients do not complain of nausea or abdominal pain.
Rumination is commonly observed in infants. The incidence in adults is unknown, because it is rarely reported by patients themselves.
Patients with achalasia or a Zenker diverticulum may regurgitate undigested food without nausea. In the majority of patients who do not have these obstructive esophageal conditions, the pathophysiology is poorly understood. The reverse peristalsis in ruminants has not been reported in humans. The disorder is probably a learned, maladaptive habit and may be part of an eating disorder. The person learns to open the lower esophageal sphincter and propel gastric contents into the esophagus and throat by increasing gastric pressure via rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm.
Rumination is usually diagnosed through observation. A psychosocial history may disclose underlying emotional stress. Endoscopy or an upper gastrointestinal series is necessary to exclude disorders causing mechanical obstruction or a Zenker diverticulum. Esophageal manometry and tests to assess gastric emptying and antral-duodenal motility may be used to identify a motility disturbance.
Treatment of rumination is supportive. Motivated patients may respond to behavioral techniques (eg, relaxation, biofeedback, training in diaphragmatic breathing [using the diaphragm instead of chest muscles to breathe]).
Baclofen may help, but long-term safety and efficacy data are limited. Psychiatric consultation may be helpful.