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Hypertensive Arteriolar Nephrosclerosis

By

Zhiwei Zhang

, MD, Loma Linda University School of Medicine

Last full review/revision Mar 2021| Content last modified Mar 2021
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Hypertensive arteriolar nephrosclerosis is progressive renal impairment caused by chronic, poorly controlled hypertension. Symptoms and signs of chronic kidney disease may develop (eg, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, somnolence or confusion), as may signs of end-organ damage secondary to hypertension. Diagnosis is primarily clinical, supported by ultrasonography and routine laboratory test findings. Treatment is strict blood pressure control and support of renal function.

Hypertensive arteriolar nephrosclerosis progresses to end-stage renal disease in only a small percentage of patients. However, because chronic hypertension and hypertensive nephrosclerosis are common, hypertensive arteriolar nephrosclerosis is one of the most common diagnoses in patients with end-stage renal disease. It is often described as benign to distinguish it from malignant arteriolar nephrosclerosis, which is a synonym for hypertensive emergency Hypertensive Emergencies A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension with signs of damage to target organs (primarily the brain, cardiovascular system, and kidneys). Diagnosis is by blood pressure (BP) measurement... read more .

Risk factors include

Blacks are at increased risk; it is unclear if the risk is increased because poorly treated hypertension is more common among blacks or because blacks are more genetically susceptible to hypertension-induced renal damage.

Symptoms and Signs

Symptoms and signs of chronic kidney disease Symptoms and Signs Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is long-standing, progressive deterioration of renal function. Symptoms develop slowly and in advanced stages include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, dysgeusia... read more Symptoms and Signs , such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, somnolence or confusion, weight loss, and an unpleasant taste in the mouth, may develop. Signs of hypertension-related end-organ damage may occur in the vasculature of the eyes and in the skin, central nervous system, and periphery.

Diagnosis

  • History of hypertension

  • Blood tests indicating renal failure

  • Signs of hypertensive end-organ damage

  • No other cause of chronic kidney disease

The diagnosis may be suspected when routine blood tests indicate deteriorating renal function (eg, elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, hyperphosphatemia) in a hypertensive patient. Diagnosis is usually inferred because of the history and evidence of hypertension-related end-organ damage (eg, retinal changes, left ventricular hypertrophy) on physical examination. Hypertension should be present before onset of proteinuria and renal failure, and there should be no other clinically suspected cause of renal failure.

Urine testing should not suggest other causes of renal failure (eg, glomerulonephritis, hypertensive emergency). On urinalysis, there should be few cells or casts in the sediment, and protein excretion is usually < 1 g/day (it is occasionally higher and in the nephrotic range).

Ultrasonography should be done to exclude other causes of renal failure. It may show that kidney size is reduced. Renal biopsy is done only if the diagnosis remains unclear.

Prognosis

Prognosis usually depends on adequacy of blood pressure control and degree of renal failure. Usually, renal impairment progresses slowly; after 5 to 10 years, only 1 to 2% of patients develop clinically significant renal dysfunction.

Treatment

  • Blood pressure (BP) control

Treatment involves strict BP control Treatment Hypertension is sustained elevation of resting systolic blood pressure (≥ 130 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (≥ 80 mm Hg), or both. Hypertension with no known cause (primary; formerly, essential... read more Treatment . The BP goal is < 130 to 140/80 to 90 mm Hg. Most experts suggest using an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) or an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor for patients who have proteinuria. Calcium channel blockers and thiazide diuretics can be used as first-line drugs; most patients require combination therapy for BP control. Weight loss, exercise, and salt and water restriction also help control BP. Chronic kidney disease Prognosis Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is long-standing, progressive deterioration of renal function. Symptoms develop slowly and in advanced stages include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, dysgeusia... read more Prognosis should be managed.

Key Points

  • Chronic hypertension can cause hypertensive arteriolar nephrosclerosis, resulting in chronic kidney disease and, infrequently, end-stage renal disease.

  • Suspect the diagnosis if chronic hypertension precedes onset of renal insufficiency.

  • Do ultrasonography to check for other causes of renal failure.

  • Treat most patients with an ACE inhibitor or ARB and possibly other drugs.

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