Uterine rupture is rare. It can occur during late pregnancy or active labor.
Uterine rupture occurs most often along healed scar lines in women who have had prior cesarean deliveries Cesarean Delivery Cesarean delivery is surgical delivery by incision into the uterus. Up to 30% of deliveries in the US are cesarean. The rate of cesarean delivery fluctuates. It has recently increased, partly... read more . Other predisposing factors include congenital uterine abnormalities, trauma, and other uterine surgical procedures such as myomectomies or open maternal-fetal surgery.
Causes of uterine rupture include
Uterine overdistention (due to multifetal pregnancy Multifetal Pregnancy Multifetal pregnancy is presence of > 1 fetus in the uterus. Multifetal (multiple) pregnancy occurs in up to 1 of 30 deliveries. Risk factors for multiple pregnancy include Ovarian stimulation... read more , polyhydramnios Polyhydramnios Polyhydramnios is excessive amniotic fluid; it is associated with maternal and fetal complications. Diagnosis is by ultrasonographic measurement of amniotic fluid volume. Management is by treating... read more , or fetal anomalies)
External or internal fetal version
Excessive use of uterotonics
Failure to recognize labor dystocia with excessive uterine contractions against a lower uterine restriction ring
If women who have had a prior cesarean delivery wish to try vaginal delivery, prostaglandins should not be used because they increase risk of uterine rupture.
Symptoms and signs of uterine rupture include fetal bradycardia, variable decelerations, evidence of hypovolemia, loss of fetal station (detected during cervical examination), and severe or constant abdominal pain. If the fetus has been expelled from the uterus and is located within the peritoneal cavity, fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality increase significantly.
Diagnosis of uterine rupture is confirmed by laparotomy.
Treatment of uterine rupture is immediate laparotomy with cesarean delivery and, if necessary, hysterectomy.