Many undernourished patients need nutritional support, which aims to increase lean body mass. Oral feeding can be difficult for some patients with anorexia or with eating or absorption problems. Nutritional support is often needed for critically ill patients ( 1).
Obesity is a chronic, multifactorial, relapsing disorder characterized by excess body weight and defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 30 kg/m2. Complications include cardiovascular disorders (particularly in people with excess abdominal fat), diabetes mellitus, certain cancers, cholelithiasis, metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease, cirrhosis, osteoarthritis, reproductive disorders in men and women, psychologic disorders, and, for people with BMI ≥ 35, premature death. Diagnosis is based on BMI. Treatment includes lifestyle modification (eg, diet, physical activity, behavior), anti-obesity medications, and bariatric (weight-loss) surgery.
Undernutrition is a form of malnutrition. (Malnutrition also includes overnutrition.) Undernutrition can result from inadequate ingestion of nutrients, malabsorption, impaired metabolism, loss of nutrients due to diarrhea, or increased nutritional requirements (as occurs in periods of rapid growth and increased nutritional needs or in disorders [eg, cancer, infection]). Chronic undernutrition occurs when a long-term deficiency in the intake of calories and essential nutrients is insufficient to meet a person's nutritional requirements. Undernutrition progresses in stages; it may develop slowly when it is due to anorexia or very rapidly, as sometimes occurs when it is due to rapidly progressive cancer-related cachexia. First, nutrient levels in blood and tissues change, followed by intracellular changes in biochemical functions and structure. Ultimately, symptoms and signs appear. Diagnosis is by history, physical examination, body composition analysis, and sometimes laboratory tests (eg, albumin).