Manganese (Mn), necessary for healthy bone structure, is a component of several enzyme systems, including manganese-specific glycosyltransferases and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Median intake is between 1.6 and 2.3 mg/day; absorption is 5 to 10%.
Manganese toxicity is more often a risk with people who mine and refine ore, but even low-level occupational exposure and contaminated foods (eg, infant formula) or water may be harmful. Prolonged exposure causes neurologic symptoms resembling those of parkinsonism Secondary and Atypical Parkinsonism Secondary parkinsonism refers to a group of disorders that have features similar to those of Parkinson disease but have a different etiology. Atypical parkinsonism refers to a group of neurodegenerative... read more or Wilson disease Wilson Disease Wilson disease results in accumulation of copper in the liver and other organs. Hepatic or neurologic symptoms develop. Diagnosis is based on a low serum ceruloplasmin level, high urinary excretion... read more and may also alter cardiovascular function. Treatment, which may not relieve the neurologic symptoms, includes eliminating exposure and chelation.
(See also Overview of Mineral Deficiency and Toxicity Overview of Minerals Six macrominerals are required by people in gram amounts. Four cations: Sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium Two accompanying anions: Chloride and phosphorus Daily requirements range from... read more .)