Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)


Josephine Elia

, MD, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University

Last full review/revision Apr 2021
Click here for Patient Education

Oppositional defiant disorder is a recurrent or persistent pattern of negative, defiant, or even hostile behavior directed at authority figures. Diagnosis is by history. Treatment is with individual psychotherapy combined with family or caregiver therapy. Occasionally, drugs may be used to reduce irritability.

Prevalence estimates of oppositional defiant disorder vary widely because the diagnostic criteria are highly subjective; prevalence in children and adolescents may be as high as 15%. Before puberty, affected boys greatly outnumber girls; after puberty, the difference narrows.

Although oppositional defiant disorder is sometimes viewed as a mild version of conduct disorder Conduct Disorder Conduct disorder is a recurrent or persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or violates major age-appropriate societal norms or rules. Diagnosis is by history. Treatment... read more , similarities between the 2 disorders are only superficial. The hallmark of this disorder is an interpersonal style characterized by irritability and defiance. However, children with a conduct disorder seemingly lack a conscience and repeatedly violate the rights of others (eg, bullying, threatening or causing harm, being cruel to animals), sometimes without any evidence of irritability.

Etiology of oppositional defiant disorder is unknown, but it is probably most common among children from families in which the adults engage in loud, argumentative, interpersonal conflicts. This diagnosis should not be viewed as a circumscribed disorder but rather as an indication of underlying problems that may require further investigation and treatment.

Symptoms and Signs of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Typically, children with oppositional defiant disorder tend to frequently do the following:

  • Lose their temper easily and repeatedly

  • Argue with adults

  • Defy adults

  • Refuse to obey rules

  • Deliberately annoy people

  • Blame others for their own mistakes or misbehavior

  • Be easily annoyed and angered

  • Be spiteful or vindictive

Many affected children also lack social skills.

Diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

  • Clinical criteria

Oppositional defiant disorder is diagnosed if children have had 4 of the above symptoms for at least 6 months. Symptoms must also be severe and disruptive.

Oppositional defiant disorder must be distinguished from the following, which may cause similar symptoms:

Treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

  • Behavior modification therapy

  • Sometimes drugs

Underlying problems (eg, family dysfunction) and coexisting disorders (eg, ADHD) should be identified and corrected. However, even without corrective measures or treatment, most children with oppositional defiant disorder gradually improve over time.

Initially, the treatment of choice for oppositional defiant disorder is a rewards-based behavior-modification program designed to make the child’s behaviors more socially appropriate. Many children can benefit from group-based therapy that builds social skills.

Key Points

  • In oppositional defiant disorder, children typically lose their temper frequently, defy adults, disregard rules, and deliberately annoy other people.

  • Initially, use a rewards-based behavior modification program to make the child’s behaviors more socially appropriate; sometimes drugs used to treat depressive and anxiety disorders can help.

Click here for Patient Education
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version
Professionals also read
Test your knowledge
Mumps is an acute, contagious, systemic viral disease caused by a paramyxovirus. It is spread by droplets or saliva and probably enters through the nose and mouth. After a 12- to 24-day incubation period, headache, anorexia, malaise, and low-grade fever usually develop. Then several other symptoms develop over the next few days. Of these symptoms, edema of which of the following structures is most likely to peak on the 2nd day and typically last 5 to 7 days? 
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID

Also of Interest

Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID