Traditional hallucinogens include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, and mescaline. All are derived from natural products:
LSD from a fungus that often contaminates wheat and rye flour
Psilocybin from several types of mushrooms
Mescaline from the peyote cactus
Many synthetic hallucinogens (“designer drugs”) are based on naturally occurring tryptamine or phenylethylamine molecules such as N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DIPT).
To complicate matters, many illicit drugs sold under one name actually contain another drug of abuse—often ketamine or phencyclidine Ketamine and Phencyclidine (PCP) Ketamine and phencyclidine are N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists and dissociative anesthetics that can cause intoxication, sometimes with confusion or a catatonic state. Overdose can... read more (PCP), anesthetic drugs, dextromethorphan, or other drugs.
Some other drugs, including marijuana Marijuana (Cannabis) Marijuana is a euphoriant that can cause sedation or dysphoria in some users. Psychologic dependence can develop with chronic use, but very little physical dependence is clinically apparent... read more , also have hallucinogenic properties. The term hallucinogen persists, although use of these drugs may not cause hallucinations. Alternative terms, such as psychedelic and psychotomimetic, are even less appropriate.
Pathophysiology of Hallucinogen Intoxication
LSD, psilocybin, and many designer hallucinogens are serotonin receptor agonists. For mescaline, a phenylethylamine similar to amphetamines Amphetamines Amphetamines are sympathomimetic drugs with central nervous system stimulant and euphoriant properties whose toxic adverse effects include delirium, hypertension, seizures, and hyperthermia... read more , the exact mechanism has not been determined.
Mode of use and effects vary:
LSD is commonly taken orally from drug-impregnated blotter paper or as tablets. Onset of action is usually 30 to 60 minutes after ingestion; duration of effects can be 12 to 24 hours.
Psilocybin is taken orally; effects usually last about 4 to 6 hours.
Mescaline is taken orally as peyote buttons. Onset of effects is usually 30 to 90 minutes after ingestion; duration of effects is about 12 hours.
DMT, when smoked, has onset in 2 to 5 minutes; duration of effects is 20 to 60 minutes (accounting for one of its street names, “businessman’s lunch”).
A high degree of tolerance to LSD develops and disappears rapidly. Users tolerant to any of these hallucinogenic drugs are cross-tolerant to the other drugs. Psychologic dependence varies greatly; there is no evidence of physical dependence or a withdrawal syndrome.
Symptoms and Signs of Hallucinogen Use
Intoxication results in altered perceptions, including synesthesias (eg, seeing sounds, hearing colors), intensification of sensations, enhanced empathy, depersonalization (feeling the self is not real), a distorted sense of the environment’s reality, and changes in mood (usually euphoric, sometimes depressive). Users often refer to the combination of these effects as a trip. Periods of intense psychologic effects may alternate with periods of lucidity.
LSD may also have several physical effects, including mydriasis, blurred vision, sweating, palpitations, and impaired coordination. Many other hallucinogens cause nausea and vomiting. With all, judgment is impaired.
Responses to hallucinogens depend on several factors, including the user’s expectations, ability to cope with perceptual distortions, and the setting. With LSD, delusions and true hallucinations occur but are rare, as are anxiety attacks, extreme apprehensiveness, and panic states.
Massive overdose of LSD may lead to cardiovascular collapse and life-threatening hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant hyperthermia is a life-threatening elevation in body temperature usually resulting from a hypermetabolic response to concurrent use of a depolarizing muscle relaxant and a potent,... read more .
Psilocybin and mescaline are more likely to cause hallucinations. When hallucinogenic reactions occur, they usually subside quickly if treated appropriately in a secure setting. However, some people (especially after using LSD) remain disturbed and may have a persistent psychotic state. Whether drug use has precipitated or uncovered preexisting psychotic potential or can cause this state in previously stable people is unclear.
Some people, especially long-term or repeat users (particularly of LSD), experience hallucinogen persistent perception disorder (HPPD) or flashback long after they have stopped drug use. In HPPD, the same symptoms from the original drug use occur without the use of the drug. These recurrent episodes are usually visual illusions but can include distortions of virtually any sensation (including self-image or perceptions of time or space) and hallucinations.
Flashbacks can be precipitated by stress, fatigue, or use of marijuana, alcohol, or barbiturates; or flashbacks can occur without apparent reason. Mechanisms are not known. Flashbacks tend to subside within 6 to 12 months, but can recur for years.
Diagnosis of Hallucinogen Use
Usually a clinical diagnosis
Diagnosis of hallucinogen use is usually made clinically. Drug levels are not measured. Except for PCP, most hallucinogens are not included in routine urine drug screens Drug Testing Drug testing is done primarily to screen people systematically or randomly for evidence of use of one or more substances with potential for abuse. Testing may be done in the following: Certain... read more .
Treatment of Hallucinogen Use
For acute intoxication, supportive measures and relief of anxiety and agitation
For persistent psychosis, psychiatric care
For acute intoxication from hallucinogens, a quiet, calming environment with reassurance that the bizarre thoughts, visions, and sounds are due to the drug and will go away soon usually suffices. Sedatives (eg, lorazepam, diazepam) may help reduce severe anxiety. Some patients may require chemical and physical restraints until safety is assured.
Persistent psychotic states or other mental disorders require appropriate psychiatric care. Flashbacks that are transient or not unduly distressing to the patient require no special treatment. However, flashbacks associated with severe anxiety and depression may require sedatives.
The following English-language resource may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
Findtreatment.gov: Listing of licensed US providers of treatment for substance use disorders
Drugs Mentioned In This Article
|Drug Name||Select Trade|
|AeroTuss, Buckley's Cough Suppressant , Buckley's DM, Buckley's Mixture, Cough DM, Cough Suppressant , Delsym, Delsym Children's, Delsym Children's Cough Relief, Delsym Cough, Dexalone, ElixSure Cough, ElixSure Cough DM, Giltuss DM, PediaCare Children's Long Acting Cough, PediaCare Infants' Long-Acting Cough, PediaCare Long-Acting Cough , Robafen Cough, Robitussin, Robitussin Children's Cough, Robitussin Cough, Robitussin CoughGels, Robitussin Lingering Cold Long-Acting Cough, Robitussin Pediatric Cough, Scot-Tussin CF, Silphen DM, Theraflu Long Acting Cough Strip, Triaminic Long Acting Cough , Triaminic Long Acting Cough Strip, Tylenol Children's Simply Cough, Vicks DayQuil Cough, Vicks DayQuil Nature Fusion, Vicks Formula 44, Vicks Nature Fusion Cough, Zicam Concentrated Cough, Zicam Cough Max, Zicam Cough Nite|
|Ativan, Loreev XR|
|Diastat, Dizac, Valium, VALTOCO|