Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are not located inside the Russian Federation

honeypot link

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in Children

By

Geoffrey A. Weinberg

, MD, Golisano Children’s Hospital

Last full review/revision Sep 2021| Content last modified Sep 2021
Click here for the Professional Version
GET THE QUICK FACTS
Topic Resources
  • Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria.

  • Infants and younger children who have urinary tract infections sometimes have structural abnormalities of their urinary system that make them more susceptible to urinary infection.

  • Newborns and infants may have no symptoms other than a fever, whereas older children have pain or burning during urination, pain in the bladder region, and a need to urinate frequently.

  • The diagnosis is based on an examination and culture of the urine.

  • Proper hygiene may help prevent urinary tract infections.

  • Antibiotics are given to eliminate the infection.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in childhood. Nearly all UTIs are caused by bacteria that enter the opening of the urethra (the tube that drains urine from the bladder out of the body) and move upward to the urinary bladder and sometimes the kidneys. Rarely, in severe infections, bacteria may enter the bloodstream from the kidneys and cause infection of the bloodstream (sepsis Sepsis and Septic Shock Sepsis is a serious bodywide response to bacteremia or another infection plus malfunction or failure of an essential system in the body. Septic shock is life-threatening low blood pressure ... read more ) or of other organs.

During infancy, boys are more likely to develop urinary tract infections. After infancy, girls are much more likely to develop them. UTIs are more common among girls because their short urethras make it easier for bacteria to move up the urinary tract. Uncircumcised infant boys (because bacteria tend to accumulate under the foreskin), children who are premature Premature Newborn A premature newborn is a baby delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. Depending on when they are born, premature newborns have underdeveloped organs, which may not be ready to function outside... read more , and young children with severe constipation Constipation in Children Constipation refers to delay or difficulty in passing stool for a period of at least 1 month in infants and toddlers and a period of 2 months in older children (see also Constipation in adults)... read more (because severe constipation also interferes with normal passage of urine) also are more prone to UTIs.

Did You Know...

  • Severe constipation may lead to urinary tract infections in children.

UTIs in older school-aged children and adolescents differ little from UTIs in adults (see Overview of Urinary Tract Infections Overview of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) In healthy people, urine in the bladder is sterile—no bacteria or other infectious organisms are present. The tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body (urethra) contains no bacteria... read more ). Younger infants and children who have UTIs, however, more commonly have various structural abnormalities of their urinary system that make them more susceptible to urinary infection. These abnormalities include vesicoureteral reflux Urinary Reflux Urinary reflux is when urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureter and sometimes the kidney, usually because of a birth defect of the urinary tract. Each kidney continuously filters... read more (VUR), which is an abnormality of the ureters (the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder) that allows urine to pass backward from the bladder up to the kidney, and a number of conditions that block the flow of urine. As many as 50% of newborns and infants with a UTI and 20 to 30% of school-aged children with a UTI have such abnormalities.

The Urinary Tract

The Urinary Tract

Up to 50% of infants and preschool children with a UTI—particularly those with fever—have both bladder Bladder Infection Cystitis is infection of the bladder. Usually, bacteria are the cause of cystitis. A frequent need to urinate and pain or burning while urinating are the most common symptoms. Doctors can often... read more Bladder Infection and kidney infections Kidney Infection Pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of one or both kidneys. Infection can spread up the urinary tract to the kidneys, or uncommonly the kidneys may become infected through bacteria in the... read more . If the kidney is repeatedly infected and reflux is severe, 5 to 20% of children go on to have some scarring of the kidneys. If there is little or no reflux, very few children have scarring of the kidneys. Scarring is a concern because it may lead to high blood pressure and impaired kidney function in adulthood.

Symptoms of UTI in Children

Newborns with a UTI may have no symptoms other than a fever. Sometimes they do not eat well or grow well, are sluggish (lethargic), vomit, or have diarrhea. Newborns may develop an overwhelming bodywide infection (sepsis Sepsis in Newborns Sepsis is a serious bodywide reaction to infection spread through the blood. Newborns with sepsis appear generally ill—they are listless, do not feed well, often have a gray color, and may have... read more ) from a UTI.

Infants and children under age 2 years with a UTI may have fever, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or foul-smelling urine.

Children over age 2 years with a UTI usually have the typical symptoms of a bladder or kidney infection similar to adults.

Children with kidney infections Kidney Infection Pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of one or both kidneys. Infection can spread up the urinary tract to the kidneys, or uncommonly the kidneys may become infected through bacteria in the... read more (pyelonephritis) typically have pain in the side or back over the affected kidney, high fever, chills, and a general feeling of illness (malaise).

Children who have urinary tract abnormalities may have a mass in the abdomen, enlarged kidneys, an abnormal opening to the urethra, or possible deformities in the lower spine. Children who do not have a forceful stream of urine may have a blockage in one of the tubes that transports urine from the kidneys to the bladder (ureters) or may not be able to control their bladder because of a nerve problem.

Did You Know...

  • Urinary tract infections in infants and young children may have very different symptoms and causes than those in adults.

Diagnosis of UTI in Children

  • Urine tests

  • Imaging of the urinary tract

  • Sometimes blood tests

Urine tests

Toilet-trained children may provide a urine sample by using the clean-catch method. In this method, the opening of the urethra is cleansed with a small pad that contains an antiseptic. Then the child urinates a small amount of urine into the toilet, washing out the urethra. Children then stop urinating in the toilet and continue urinating into a sterile cup.

Doctors obtain urine from younger children and infants by inserting a thin, flexible, sterile tube (catheter) through the urethral opening into the bladder. This process is called catheterization.

In some newborn and infant boys, the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the head of the penis, blocking the urethral opening, so the doctor needs to withdraw urine from the bladder with a needle inserted through the skin just above the pubic bone.

Sometimes doctors tape a urine collection bag to the area between the genitals and the anus to collect urine for other tests. Urine collected in this manner is not useful for the diagnosis of UTI because it is contaminated with bacteria and other material from the skin.

A UTI increases levels of white blood cells and bacteria in the urine. To detect these white blood cells and bacteria, the laboratory technician examines the urine under a microscope and does several chemical tests. The technician also does a culture of the urine Urinalysis and Urine Culture Urinalysis, the testing of urine, may be necessary in the evaluation of kidney and urinary tract disorders and can also help evaluate bodywide disorders such as diabetes or liver problems. A... read more Urinalysis and Urine Culture to grow and identify any bacteria present. The culture is the most important of these tests.

Imaging tests

Many structural abnormalities of the urinary system are diagnosed before birth during routine prenatal ultrasonography Ultrasonography Ideally, a couple who is thinking of having a baby should see a doctor or other health care practitioner to discuss whether pregnancy is advisable. Usually, pregnancy is very safe. However,... read more . Sometimes, however, children have abnormalities that cannot be seen during prenatal ultrasonography. Therefore, boys of all ages and girls younger than 3 years who develop even a single UTI usually need further tests to look for structural abnormalities of the urinary system. Older girls who have had recurring UTIs also need these tests.

The tests include

  • Ultrasonography of the kidneys and bladder

  • Possibly voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)

  • Sometimes radionuclide cystography (RNC) or radionuclide kidney scans

Voiding cystourethrography Cystography and cystourethrography There are a variety of tests that can be used in the evaluation of a suspected kidney or urinary tract disorder. (See also Overview of the Urinary Tract.) X-rays are usually not helpful in evaluating... read more (VCUG) may be done to further identify abnormalities of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder and can identify when the flow of urine is partially reversed (reflux). For voiding cystourethrography, a catheter is passed through the urethra into the bladder, a dye is instilled through the catheter, and x-rays are taken before and after the child urinates. Voiding cystourethrography may be done if ultrasonography is abnormal or if children have repeated UTIs.

Radionuclide cystography is similar to voiding cystourethrography except that a radioactive agent is placed in the bladder and images are taken using a nuclear scanner. This procedure exposes the child's ovaries or testes to less radiation than voiding cystourethrography. However, radionuclide cystography is much more useful for monitoring the healing of reflux than for diagnosing it, because the structures are not outlined as well as in voiding cystourethrography.

In another type of nuclear scanning, a radioactive substance (called dimercaptosuccinic acid or DMSA) is injected into a vein and enters the kidneys. The substance is detected by special cameras that take pictures of the insides of the kidneys. DMSA scanning may be used to confirm the diagnosis of pyelonephritis and identify scarring of the kidneys. It is most useful for children with severe UTIs or UTIs caused by certain bacteria.

Blood tests

Blood tests and tests that determine whether inflammation is present (C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) are done in children whose urine tests results do not confirm a diagnosis, or are done to help doctors diagnose a kidney infection in addition to a bladder infection.

Blood cultures are done in infants who have a UTI and in children over age 1 to 2 years who are very ill.

Prognosis for UTI in Children

Children who receive proper treatment rarely develop kidney failure Overview of Kidney Failure This chapter includes a new section on COVID-19 and acute kidney injury (AKI). Kidney failure is the inability of the kidneys to adequately filter metabolic waste products from the blood. Kidney... read more (the inability of the kidneys to adequately filter metabolic waste products from the blood) unless they have urinary tract abnormalities that cannot be repaired. However, repeated UTIs, especially in children who have severe VUR, are thought to cause kidney scarring, which may lead to high blood pressure High Blood Pressure High blood pressure (hypertension) is persistently high pressure in the arteries. Often no cause for high blood pressure can be identified, but sometimes it occurs as a result of an underlying... read more High Blood Pressure and chronic kidney disease.

Prevention of UTI in Children

Prevention of UTIs is difficult, but proper hygiene may help. Girls should be taught to wipe themselves from front to back (as opposed to back to front) after a bowel movement and after urinating to minimize the chance of bacteria entering the urethral opening. Avoiding frequent bubble baths, which may irritate the skin around the urethral opening of both boys and girls, may help lessen the risk of UTIs. Circumcision of boys lowers their risk of UTIs during infancy. Boys who are circumcised are infected with UTIs only 1/10th as often as boys who are not circumcised, but it is not clear whether this advantage by itself is a sufficient reason for circumcision. Regular urination and regular bowel movements (especially treatment of severe constipation) may lessen the risk of UTIs.

Treatment of UTI in Children

  • Antibiotics

  • Sometimes surgery

UTIs are treated with antibiotics. Children who appear very ill or whose initial test results suggest a UTI are given antibiotics before culture results are available. Otherwise, doctors wait for culture results to confirm the diagnosis of UTI. Children who are very ill and all newborns receive antibiotics by injection into either a muscle (intramuscularly) or a vein (intravenously). Other children are given antibiotics by mouth. Treatment typically lasts about 7 to 10 days. Children who require tests to diagnose structural abnormalities often continue antibiotic treatment at a lower dose until tests are complete.

Some children with structural abnormalities of the urinary tract require surgery to correct the problem. Others need to take antibiotics daily to prevent infection. Children who have severe VUR usually need surgery and need to take antibiotics until they have the surgery. Children who have VUR that is not severe are monitored closely and may be given antibiotics.

Certain cases of mild to moderate VUR resolve without treatment.

NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version
Click here for the Professional Version
Others also read
Test your knowledge
Kawasaki Disease
Kawasaki disease is inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis) throughout the body. In which of the following body parts is inflammation of the blood vessels likely to cause the most serious problems?
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID

Also of Interest

Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
TOP