Merck Manual

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Overview of the Urinary Tract

By

Glenn M. Preminger

, MD, Duke University Medical Center

Last full review/revision Jun 2019| Content last modified Jun 2019
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Each kidney continuously produces urine, which then drains through the ureter into the bladder at a low pressure. From the bladder, urine drains through the urethra and exits the body through the penis in males and at the vulva (the area of the external female genital organs) in females. Usually, urine is free of bacteria and other infectious organisms.

Organs of the Urinary Tract

Organs of the Urinary Tract
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Bladder infections (cystitis) are usually caused by bacteria. Most people with cystitis need to urinate frequently. Pain and/or burning on urination are also common. Which of the following groups of people with bladder infections may experience no symptoms or may develop confusion as their only symptom?
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