Merck Manual

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Some Oral Antihyperglycemic Drugs

Some Oral Antihyperglycemic Drugs

Drug

Some Side Effects

Biguanides

All biguanides can cause

  • Diarrhea

  • Increased acidity of body fluids (rare)

  • Liver failure (rare)

Metformin

Extended-release metformin

Sulfonylureas

All sulfonylureas can cause

  • Weight gain

  • Low blood glucose levels

Possibly increase the risk of death due to cardiovascular complications

Acetohexamide

Diarrhea

Nausea

Fluid retention (edema)

Chlorpropamide

Low sodium in blood

Glimepiride

Dizziness

Headache

Glipizide

Diarrhea

Nausea

Low blood count (anemia)

Glipizide, extended release

Diarrhea

Nausea

Glyburide

Indigestion

Micronized glyburide

Indigestion

Tolazamide

Nausea

Vomiting

Tolbutamide

Headache

Low blood count

Meglitinides

All meglitinides can cause

  • Low blood glucose levels

Nateglinide

Minimal weight gain

Repaglinide

Thiazolidinediones

All thiazolidinediones can cause

  • Weight gain

  • Fluid retention (edema)

  • Increased risk of fractures

Pioglitazone

Possible increased risk of bladder cancer

Rosiglitazone

Possible increase in heart attacks

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

All alpha-glucosidase inhibitors can cause

  • Diarrhea

  • Abdominal pain

  • Bloating

  • Gas

Acarbose

Miglitol

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors

All dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors can cause

  • Headache

  • Upper respiratory infection

  • Increased risk of inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)

Alogliptin

Joint pain

Linagliptin

Diarrhea

Saxagliptin

Joint pain

Sitagliptin

Diarrhea

Joint pain

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors

All sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors can

SGLT2 inhibitors may possibly

  • Increase the risk of fractures

  • Increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis

  • Increase cholesterol levels

  • Increase risk of a life-threatening infection of the area around the genitals (Fournier gangrene)

Canagliflozin

Increased risk of amputations (rare)

Dapagliflozin

Empagliflozin

Ertugliflozin