Merck Manual

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Causes of Interstitial Lung Diseases

Causes of Interstitial Lung Diseases

Type

Examples

Autoimmune disorders

Organic dust

Bird droppings and molds

Drug-related

Amiodarone, bleomycin, busulfan, carbamazepine, checkpoint inhibitors, chlorambucil, cocaine, cyclophosphamide, gold, methotrexate, nitrofurantoin, sulfasalazine, and sulfonamides

Chemical-related

Aluminum powder, asbestos, beryllium, metals, sulfur dioxide, talc

Genetic disorders

Fabry disease, familial pulmonary fibrosis, Gaucher disease, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, neurofibromatosis, Niemann-Pick disease (rare), pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and tuberous sclerosis

Idiopathic* interstitial pneumonias

Therapeutic or industrial radiation-related

Radiation therapy for cancer

Other disorders

* Idiopathic means with no known cause.