Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are not located inside the Russian Federation

Common Specific Antidotes

Common Specific Antidotes

Toxin

Antidote

N-Acetylcysteine

Anticholinergic drugs

Physostigmine*

Antifreeze (ethylene glycol type)

Fomepizole

Ethanol

Apixaban

Coagulation factor Xa [recombinant], inactivated

Benzodiazepines (such as diazepam and lorazepam)

Flumazenil*

Lactrodectus antivenom

Botulism

Botulinum antitoxin

Cyanide

Hydroxocobalamin

Cyanide antidote kit (includes amyl nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate)

Dabigatran

Idarucizumab

Digitalis, including drugs (digoxin) and plants (oleander, foxglove)

Digoxin-specific antibodies

Edoxaban

Coagulation factor Xa [recombinant], inactivated

Heavy metals (such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and zinc)

Drugs that remove heavy metals from the body (chelating drugs), such as dimercaprol, edetate calcium disodium, penicillamine, and succimer

Heparin

Protamine

Iron

Deferoxamine

Insecticides (many brands—ingredients should be checked)

Atropine

Pralidoxime

Methanol (wood alcohol)

Fomepizole

Ethanol

Opioids (such as morphine and heroin)

Naloxone

Rivaroxaban

Coagulation factor Xa [recombinant], inactivated

Scorpion sting (only the Centruroides species)

Centruroides immune fractionated antibodies

Snakebites*† (rattlesnakes and copperheads in the United States)

Rattlesnake (Crotalinae) antivenom

Warfarin

Vitamin K

Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)

Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC)

* Use is controversial.

† Antivenom is specific to the species of snake. There are many antivenoms, but rattlesnakes and copperheads cause most poisonous snakebites in the United States.

‡ The antidotes cited are for carbamate and organophosphate insecticides.