Drug Treatment of Diabetes
Diabetes is a lifelong disease in which your blood sugar (glucose) levels are too high.
If your blood sugar stays high for a long time, you will have serious complications of diabetes. If watching your diet and getting regular exercise don't keep your blood sugar under control, you'll need to take medicine. The medicine doctors prescribe depends on what type of diabetes you have and how high your blood sugar is.
However, diabetes medicines sometimes make your blood sugar level too low. Low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia.
Insulin is a natural hormone your body makes that lowers your blood sugar level. Insulin also comes as a medicine that you can take. Most people who need to take insulin do so by injection (shots). A new form of insulin can be taken through an inhaler.
Insulin comes in different forms based on how quickly it starts working and how long it lasts:
Rapid-acting insulin starts working in 5 to 15 minutes and lasts about 4 hours—you may inject rapid-acting insulin right before you eat
Regular insulin starts working in 30 to 60 minutes and lasts 6 to 8 hours
Intermediate-acting insulin starts working in 1 to 2 hours and lasts about a day
Long-acting insulin has very little effect in the first few hours but lasts 20 to 36 hours
You may take more than one type of insulin. And you may take insulin once or several times a day. What type you use and how often you take it depends on several things, including:
Doctors will figure out which type of insulin will work best for you. Some people take the same amount of insulin every day. Other people change how much insulin they take every day depending on their diet, exercise, and blood sugar level. Your insulin needs may change if you gain or lose weight, change how much exercise you do, have a lot of emotional stress, or get a sickness or infection.
Most often, you'll take insulin as an injection (shot) under your skin. There are different ways to take insulin injections:
An insulin syringe that you fill from a bottle of insulin
An insulin pen (a device that holds several doses of insulin)—the pen has a dial that you turn to adjust the insulin dose and a button you push to inject the insulin
An insulin pump (a battery powered device that pumps insulin through a small needle left under your skin)
Less common ways you might take insulin include:
If you're taking too much insulin or not eating regularly, your blood sugar can go too low (hypoglycemia).
Over time, your body may get resistant to insulin. This means that your body may need more and more insulin to get the same result.
Also, the place where you give yourself the shot may have problems, such as:
You can avoid most of these problems by giving yourself shots in different places on your body.
Besides insulin, several other types of medicines are used to control blood sugar in people with diabetes. Some are taken by mouth and others as a shot. Sometimes you need more than one medicine or need to take insulin along with these medicines. Doctors choose the right medicines for your diabetes so that your blood sugar is under control without causing it to go too low.
Diabetes medicines work in different ways to control your blood sugar, including:
Diabetes medicines can cause hypoglycemia and other side effects. Talk to your doctor to know what to look for.
When taking insulin or other diabetes medicines, it's important to check your blood sugar often and see your doctor to: