What is menopause?
Menopause is when women stop having periods (stop menstruating) and can no longer get pregnant.
Menopause usually happens after age 40. In the United States, the average age for menopause is about 52.
Some symptoms, such as irregular periods and hot flashes, may appear years before you go through menopause
Your bones may weaken after menopause
Some doctors may give you medicines to help with your symptoms
Menopause doesn't happen all at once. Over time, your periods happen less often. Menopause is complete when you haven’t had a period for a full year. It is possible to get pregnant before then. If you don't want to get pregnant, use birth control until you've gone a year without any periods.
What causes menopause?
Menopause is normal and happens as your body ages.
For several years before menopause, your body gradually makes less estrogen and progesterone. These are sex hormones that are needed for menstruation (getting your period) and pregnancy. With less of these hormones, your ovaries stop releasing eggs, and your periods stop.
Menopause that happens before age 40 is called premature menopause Premature Menopause Premature menopause is the permanent end of menstrual periods before age 40. It occurs because the ovaries no longer release eggs (ovulation) regularly and become less able to produce hormones... read more . Premature menopause is uncommon and can be caused by many different medical problems.
What are the symptoms of menopause?
Menopause doesn't happen all of a sudden. At first you may notice:
Hot flashes (when you suddenly feel hot and sweaty, even thought it isn't hot)—hot flashes last from 30 seconds to about 5 minutes
Waking up covered with sweat (night sweats, which are hot flashes that occur at night)
At the same time, many women also have symptoms like:
Loss of focus
These symptoms often go on for a year or more. Eventually your periods stop completely, and the symptoms usually get better. Sometimes hot flashes go on longer.
Symptoms after menopause are due to lower levels of sex hormones. You may have:
A dry vagina
Less interest in having sex
Painful sex, because of a drier and thinner vagina
Difficulty having an orgasm
A need to urinate (pee) more urgently or incontinence (peeing without meaning to)
Thinner, drier, more delicate skin
Higher levels of bad cholesterol (LDL)
Higher chance of heart disease
How can doctors tell if I have menopause?
Usually, menopause needs no tests. If it begins too early, doctors may check for other diseases that can make your periods stop.
How do doctors treat menopause?
Understanding menopause may help you cope with your symptoms. Talking with other women who have gone through menopause or with your doctor may also help you decide what treatment can work for you.
Because your symptoms are caused by low hormone levels, taking hormones (hormone replacement therapy) is the most effective way to relieve symptoms. However, hormone replacement has risks so doctors usually try other things first.
Hot flash treatments may include:
Dressing in removable layers of clothes
Wearing clothing that breathes or wicks moisture, such as cotton and sports clothes
Avoiding hot environments and bright lights
Certain medicines that aren't hormones
Incontinence treatments may include:
Exercises to strengthen the muscles that stop and start urination
Dry vagina treatments may include:
Vaginal lubricant or moisturizer
Continuing to have sex—this increases blood flow to the vagina
Some women take medicinal herbs and other supplements Overview of Dietary Supplements Integrative medicine and health (IMH) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) include healing approaches and therapies that historically have not been included in conventional, mainstream... read more to relieve symptoms. There are many different supplements. Most of them don’t work well, and none are reviewed for safety the way prescription medicines are. Also, some herbs and supplements can interfere with other medicines you take. If you’re thinking about taking supplements, discuss them with your doctor.
If other treatments don't work, hormone therapy may help. However, hormone therapy has benefits and risks. Talk to your doctor about whether these treatments are right for you.
Hormone therapy can include:
A progestin (such as progesterone)
Both (combination therapy)
Hormone therapy can be given as:
Creams, tablets, or rings you put in your vagina
Lotions or sprays you put on your skin
Benefits of hormone therapy include:
Lessened menopause symptoms like hot flashes and vaginal dryness
Lower chance of getting osteoporosis (weakened bones)
Lower chance of getting endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus)
Lower chance of getting colorectal cancer (cancer in the lower parts of the large intestine)
Risks of hormone therapy include:
Blood clots in your lungs or legs (with progestin alone)
Higher chance of getting endometrial cancer (with estrogen alone)
Higher chance of getting breast cancer (after 3 to 5 years of taking combination therapy or 10+ years of taking estrogen)
Urinary incontinence (with estrogen alone)
Lower levels of the "good" (HDL) cholesterol (with progestin alone)
Taking lower doses may lower these risks.
Generally, women who have breast cancer Breast Cancer Cancer is when cells grow abnormally. Cancer cells don't look or work like normal cells and keep multiplying out of control. Cancer cells can invade and destroy nearby healthy tissue. Sometimes... read more , coronary artery disease Overview of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) The heart is a muscle that pumps blood. Like all muscles, the heart needs a steady supply of blood to work. Blood that pumps through the heart doesn't feed the heart muscle. Instead the heart... read more , or blood clots Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) Thrombosis is when a blood clot (called a thrombus) blocks a blood vessel. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is when a blood clot forms inside a large vein. Usually the vein is deep in your leg, but... read more in the legs, who have had a stroke Stroke A stroke is a sudden brain problem that happens when a blood vessel in your brain either gets blocked or breaks open and bleeds. Part of your brain stops getting blood. Brain tissue that doesn't... read more , or who have risk factors for these disorders shouldn't use estrogen therapy.