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Assisted Reproductive Technologies


Robert W. Rebar

, MD, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine

Reviewed/Revised Oct 2022
Topic Resources

Assisted reproductive technologies involve working with sperm and eggs or embryos in a laboratory (in vitro) with the goal of producing a pregnancy.

If treatment has not resulted in pregnancy after four to six menstrual cycles, assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization or gamete intrafallopian tube transfer, may be considered. These techniques are more successful in women under age 35. For example, in the United States, in vitro fertilization results in the following:

  • In women under 35: Live births resulted from about 30% of the procedures.

  • In women aged 41 to 42: Live births resulted from only about 11% of the procedures.

For women over 42, using eggs from another woman (donor) is recommended.

Did You Know...

  • An embryo can be tested for genetic abnormalities before it is implanted in the woman.

Intrauterine insemination

Intrauterine insemination involves selecting only the most active sperm, then placing them directly in the uterus. The most active sperm are selected by washing a semen sample. Doctors try to place these sperm in the uterus at the same time as ovulation.

With this procedure, pregnancy usually occurs by the sixth attempt if it is going to occur. Intrauterine insemination is far less effective than in vitro fertilization but is much less invasive and less expensive.

In vitro (test tube) fertilization (IVF)

In vitro fertilization (IVF) can be used to treat infertility regardless of the cause (including when it is unidentified).

IVF typically involves the following:

More and more often, additional embryos are being frozen in liquid nitrogen to be used later if pregnancy does not occur. Also, practitioners may try IVF using only one egg that develops normally during a menstrual cycle (that is, without using fertility medications).

The chances of having a baby with in vitro fertilization depend on many factors, but the woman’s age may be most important.

The greatest risk of in vitro fertilization is

Birth defects are slightly more common among babies conceived through IVF. However, experts are unclear whether the reason is related to the technique or to the fertility problems that made IVF necessary. Also, more than 7 million babies have been conceived through IVF, and the overwhelming majority of these babies have had no birth defects.

In the United States, the chances of having a successful pregnancy for each egg retrieved is estimated to be about 45% for women under age 35 and slightly over 10% for women aged 41 to 42.

In Vitro Fertilization

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be used when

  • Other techniques are likely to be unsuccessful.

  • A severe problem with sperm is present.

It resembles in vitro fertilization except that only one sperm is injected into each egg.

By 2018, over two thirds of assisted reproductive procedures in the United States involved intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

Birth defects may be more likely after this procedure, possibly because of the following:

  • The procedure can damage the egg, sperm, or embryo.

  • If sperm from men with an abnormal Y chromosome (one of the sex chromosomes) are used in this procedure, the development of reproductive organs in a male fetus may be affected, typically resulting in fertility problems like those of the father. Most birth defects in babies conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection involve the reproductive organs.

Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT)

Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer is rarely used in the United States because in vitro fertilization is very successful.

GIFT can be used if the fallopian tubes are functioning normally. Eggs and selected active sperm are obtained as for in vitro fertilization, but the eggs are not fertilized with sperm in the laboratory. Instead, the eggs and sperm are transferred to the far end of the woman’s fallopian tube through a small incision in the abdomen (using a laparoscope) or through the vagina (guided by ultrasonography), so that the egg can be fertilized in the fallopian tube. Thus, this technique is more invasive than in vitro fertilization.

Other techniques

These techniques include the following:

  • A combination of IVF and GIFT

  • Transfer of a fertilized egg (zygote) to the fallopian tube (rarely done)

  • Use of eggs or embryos from another woman (donor), especially if women are over age 42

  • Transfer of frozen embryos to a surrogate mother

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Generic Name Select Brand Names
Clomid, Serophene
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