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The following abbreviations are used throughout the text; other abbreviations are expanded at first mention in the chapter or subchapter.

ABG arterial blood gas

ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone

ADH antidiuretic hormone

AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

ALT alanine aminotransferase (formerly SGPT)

AST aspartate aminotransferase (formerly SGOT)

ATPadenosine triphosphate

BCG bacille Calmette-Guérin

bid 2 times a day

BMR basal metabolic rate

BP blood pressure

BSA body surface area

BUN blood urea nitrogen

C Celsius; centigrade; complement

Ca calcium

cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CBC complete blood count

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

cGy centigray

Ci curie

CK creatine kinase

CK-MB creatine kinase muscle band isoenzyme

Cl chloride; chlorine

cm centimeter

CNS central nervous system

CO2 carbon dioxide

COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CK creatine kinase

CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CSF cerebrospinal fluid

CT computed tomography

cu cubic

D & C dilation and curettage

dL deciliter (= 100 mL)

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid

DTP diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (toxoids/vaccine)

D/W or D dextrose in water

ECF extracellular fluid

ECG electrocardiogram

EEG electroencephalogram

ENT ear, nose, and throat

ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate

F Fahrenheit

FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration

ft foot; feet (measure)

FUO fever of unknown origin

g gram

GFR glomerular filtration rate

GI gastrointestinal

G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

GU genitourinary

Gy gray

h hour

Hb hemoglobin

HCl hydrochloric acid; hydrochloride

HCO3 bicarbonate

Hct hematocrit

Hg mercury

HIV human immunodeficiency virus

HLA human leukocyte antigen

HMG-CoA hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A

Hz hertz (cycles/second)

ICF intracellular fluid

ICU intensive care unit

IgA, etc immunoglobin A, etc

IL interleukin

IM intramuscular(ly)

INR international normalized ratio

IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing

IU international unit

IV intravenous(ly)

IVU intravenous urography

K potassium

kcal kilocalorie (food calorie)

kg kilogram

L liter

lb pound

LDH lactic dehydrogenase

M molar

m meter

MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin

MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

mCi millicurie

MCV mean corpuscular volume

mEq milliequivalent

Mg magnesium

mg milligram

MI myocardial infarction

MIC minimum inhibitory concentration

mIU milli-international unit

mL milliliter

mm millimeter

mmol millimole

mo month

molwt molecular weight

mOsm milliosmole

MRI magnetic resonance imaging

N nitrogen; normal (strength of solution)

Na sodium

NaCl sodium chloride

ng nanogram (= millimicrogram)

nm nanometer (= millimicron)

nmol nanomole

npo nothing by mouth

NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

O2 oxygen

OTC over-the-counter (pharmaceuticals)

oz ounce

P phosphorus; pressure

PAco2 alveolar carbon dioxide partial pressure

Paco2 arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure

PAo2 alveolar oxygen partial pressure

Pao2 arterial oxygen partial pressure

PAS periodic acid-Schiff

Pco2 carbon dioxide partial pressure (or tension)

PCR polymerase chain reaction

PET positron emission tomography

pg picogram (= micromicrogram)

pH hydrogen ion concentration

PMN polymorphonuclear leukocyte

po orally

Po2 oxygen partial pressure (or tension)

PPD purified protein derivative (tuberculin)

ppm parts per million

prn as needed

PT prothrombin time

PTT partial thromboplastin time

q every

qid 4 times a day

RA rheumatoid arthritis

RBC red blood cell

RNA ribonucleic acid

Sao2 arterial oxygen saturation

SBE subacute bacterial endocarditis

sc subcutaneous(ly)

SI International System of Units

SIDS sudden infant death syndrome

SLE systemic lupus erythematosus

soln solution

sp species (singular)

spp species (plural)

sp gr specific gravity

sq square

SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

STS serologic test(s) for syphilis

TB tuberculosis

tid 3 times a day

TPN total parenteral nutrition

URI upper respiratory infection

UTI urinary tract infection

WBC white blood cell

WHO World Health Organization

wt weight

μ micro-; micron

μCi microcurie

μg microgram

μL microliter

μm micrometer (= micron)

μmol micromole

μOsm micro-osmole

mμ millimicron (= nanometer)

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