(See also Overview of Arrhythmias Overview of Arrhythmias The normal heart beats in a regular, coordinated way because electrical impulses generated and spread by myocytes with unique electrical properties trigger a sequence of organized myocardial... read more and Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is a rapid, irregularly irregular atrial rhythm. Symptoms include palpitations and sometimes weakness, effort intolerance, dyspnea, and presyncope. Atrial thrombi may form... read more .)
In manifest Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome Reentrant supraventricular tachycardias (SVT) involve reentrant pathways with a component above the bifurcation of the His bundle. Patients have sudden episodes of palpitations that begin and... read more , antegrade conduction occurs over the accessory pathway. If atrial fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is a rapid, irregularly irregular atrial rhythm. Symptoms include palpitations and sometimes weakness, effort intolerance, dyspnea, and presyncope. Atrial thrombi may form... read more develops, the normal rate-limiting effects of the atrioventricular (AV) node are bypassed, and the resultant excessive ventricular rates (sometimes 200 to 300 beats/minutes) may lead to ventricular fibrillation Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) Ventricular fibrillation causes uncoordinated quivering of the ventricle with no useful contractions. It causes immediate syncope and death within minutes. Treatment is with cardiopulmonary... read more (see figure Atrial fibrillation in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome Atrial fibrillation in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome ) and sudden death. Patients with concealed WPW syndrome are not at risk because in them, antegrade conduction does not occur over the accessory connection.
Atrial fibrillation in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
Ventricular response is very fast (RR intervals minimum of 160 msec). Shortly thereafter, ventricular fibrillation develops (lead II continuous rhythm strip at bottom).
Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation and WPW Syndrome
The treatment of choice for Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with atrial fibrillation is direct current cardioversion Direct Current (DC) Cardioversion-Defibrillation The need for treatment of arrhythmias depends on the symptoms and the seriousness of the arrhythmia. Treatment is directed at causes. If necessary, direct antiarrhythmic therapy, including antiarrhythmic... read more . The usual rate-slowing medications used in atrial fibrillation are not effective, and digoxin, adenosine, and the nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil, diltiazem) that may be used in many other forms of supraventricular tachycardia are contraindicated because they may increase the ventricular rate and cause ventricular fibrillation. If cardioversion is impossible, medications that prolong the refractory period of the accessory connection should be used. IV procainamide or amiodarone is preferred, but any class Ia, class Ic, or class III antiarrhythmic drug Medications for Arrhythmias The need for treatment of arrhythmias depends on the symptoms and the seriousness of the arrhythmia. Treatment is directed at causes. If necessary, direct antiarrhythmic therapy, including antiarrhythmic... read more can be used.
Pearls & Pitfalls
Drugs Mentioned In This Article
|Digitek , Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin, Lanoxin Pediatric
|Calan, Calan SR, Covera-HS, Isoptin, Isoptin SR, Verelan, Verelan PM
|Cardizem, Cardizem CD, Cardizem LA, Cardizem SR, Cartia XT , Dilacor XR, Dilt-CD , Diltia XT, Diltzac, Matzim LA, Taztia XT, TIADYLT ER, Tiamate, Tiazac
|Procanbid, Pronestyl, Pronestyl-SR
|Cordarone, Nexterone, Pacerone