EHEC include > 100 serotypes that produce Shiga and Shiga-like toxins (Shiga toxin–producing E. coli [STEC]; also known as verotoxin-producing E. coli [VTEC]). However, only a small number of serotypes are linked to human disease.
E. coli O157:H7 is the most common STEC in North America. However, non-O157 STEC serotypes (particularly O26, O45, O91, O103, O111, O113, O121, O128, and O145) may also cause enterohemorrhagic illness, particularly outside the US. In 2011, serotype O104:H4 caused a significant, multinational outbreak in Europe.
In some parts of the US and Canada, E. coli O157:H7 infection may be a more common cause of bloody diarrhea than shigellosis Shigellosis Shigellosis is an acute infection of the intestine caused by the gram-negative Shigella species. Symptoms include fever, nausea, vomiting, tenesmus, and diarrhea that is usually bloody... read more or salmonellosis Overview of Salmonella Infections The genus Salmonella is divided into 2 species, S. enterica and S. bongori, which include > 2500 known serotypes. Some of these serotypes are named. In such cases, common... read more . E. coli O157:H7 infection can occur in people of all ages, although severe infection is most common among children and older people.
E. coli O157:H7 and other STEC have a bovine reservoir. Infection can be transmitted via food or water contaminated with cow manure, as in the outbreaks and sporadic cases that typically occur after ingestion of undercooked beef (especially ground beef, eg, hamburgers) or unpasteurized milk. In the 2011 European O104:H4 outbreak, infection was transmitted by contaminated raw bean sprouts. The organism can also be transmitted by the fecal-oral route, especially among infants in diapers (eg, via inadequately chlorinated children’s wading pools).
After ingestion, E. coli O157:H7 and similar STEC serotypes produce high levels of various toxins in the large intestine; these toxins are closely related to the potent cytotoxins produced by Shigella dysenteriae type 1. These toxins appear to directly damage mucosal cells and vascular endothelial cells in the gut wall. If absorbed, they exert toxic effects on other vascular endothelia (eg, renal).
About 5 to 10% of cases (mostly children < 5 years and adults > 60 years) are complicated by hemolytic-uremic syndrome Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an acute, fulminant disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Other manifestations may include alterations... read more , which typically develops in the 2nd week of illness. Death may occur, especially in older people, with or without this complication.
Symptoms and Signs
EHEC infection typically begins acutely with severe abdominal cramps and watery diarrhea that may become grossly bloody within 24 hours. Some patients report diarrhea as being “all blood and no stool,” which has given rise to the term hemorrhagic colitis. Fever, usually absent or low grade, occasionally reaches 39° C. Diarrhea may last 1 to 8 days in uncomplicated infections.
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is an acute, fulminant disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Other manifestations may include alterations... read more causes a rapid fall in hematocrit and platelet count, elevated serum creatinine, hypertension, and possibly signs of fluid overload, bleeding diathesis, and neurologic symptoms and signs.
Rapid stool assay for Shiga toxin
E. coli O157:H7 and other STEC infections should be distinguished from other infectious diarrheas by isolating the organism from stool cultures. Culture of EHEC infections requires special media. Identifying the specific serotype helps identify the origin of an outbreak. Often, the clinician must specifically ask the laboratory to test for the organism.
Because bloody diarrhea and severe abdominal pain without fever suggest various noninfectious etiologies, EHEC infection should be considered in suspected cases of ischemic colitis Ischemic Colitis Ischemic colitis is a transient reduction in blood flow to the colon. Diagnosis is by CT or colonoscopy. Treatment is supportive with IV fluids, bowel rest, and antibiotics. Necrosis may occur... read more , intussusception Intussusception Intussusception is telescoping of one portion of the intestine (intussusceptum) into an adjacent segment (intussuscipiens), causing intestinal obstruction and sometimes intestinal ischemia.... read more , and inflammatory bowel disease Overview of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, is a relapsing and remitting condition characterized by chronic inflammation at various sites in the gastrointestinal... read more . Characteristically, no inflammatory cells are found in the stool fluid. A rapid stool assay for Shiga toxin or, when available, a test for the gene that encodes the toxin may help.
Patients at risk of noninfectious diarrheas may need sigmoidoscopy. If done, sigmoidoscopy may reveal erythema and edema; barium enema or plain abdominal x-rays typically show evidence of edema with thumbprinting.
The mainstay of treatment for EHEC infection is supportive. Although E. coli is sensitive to most commonly used antibiotics, antibiotics have not been shown to alleviate symptoms, reduce carriage of the organism, or prevent hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Fluoroquinolones are suspected of increasing release of enterotoxins and the risk of hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
In the week after infection, patients at high risk of developing hemolytic-uremic syndrome (eg, children < 5 years, older people) should be observed for early signs, such as hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, proteinuria, hematuria, red cell casts, and rising serum creatinine. Edema and hypertension develop later. Patients who develop complications are likely to require intensive care, including dialysis and other specific therapies, at a tertiary medical center.
Improved meat processing procedures in the US have helped reduce the rate of meat contamination.
Correct disposal of the stool of infected people, good hygiene, and careful hand washing with soap and running water limit spread of infection.
Preventive measures that may be effective in the day care setting include grouping children known to be infected with STEC or requiring 2 negative stool cultures before allowing infected children to attend.
Pasteurization of milk and thorough cooking of beef prevent food-borne transmission.
Reporting outbreaks of bloody diarrhea to public health authorities is important because intervention can prevent additional infections.
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) produce Shiga toxin, which causes severe, bloody diarrhea and sometimes hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
There are > 100 serotypes of EHEC; O157:H7 is the best-known, but many others cause similar illness.
EHEC have a bovine reservoir, so outbreaks often result from ingestion of undercooked beef (eg, hamburgers), but many other foods (eg, fresh produce, raw milk) and sources (eg, direct exposure to animals) may be involved.
Use stool tests to identify Shiga toxin, and use cultures (require special media) to identify EHEC.
Provide supportive care; antibiotics are not helpful.
Monitor at-risk patients (eg, children < 5 years, older people) for signs of hemolytic-uremic syndrome for a week or two after onset of illness.