Burns cause about 3000 deaths/year in the US and about 2 million physician visits.
(See also Ocular Burns Ocular Burns Ocular burns can occur after thermal or chemical injuries and can result in serious complications, including permanent blindness. (See also Overview of Eye Trauma.) The blink reflex usually... read more and Caustic Ingestion Caustic Ingestion Caustics (strong acids and alkalis), when ingested, burn upper gastrointestinal tract tissues, sometimes resulting in esophageal or gastric perforation. Symptoms may include drooling, dysphagia... read more .)
Etiology of Burns
Thermal burns may result from any external heat source (flame, hot liquids, hot solid objects, or occasionally, steam). Fires may also result in toxic smoke inhalation Smoke Inhalation When smoke is inhaled, toxic products of combustion injure airway tissues and/or cause metabolic effects. Hot smoke usually burns only the pharynx because the incoming gas cools quickly. An... read more (see also Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning causes acute symptoms such as headache, nausea, weakness, angina, dyspnea, loss of consciousness, seizures, and coma. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may develop weeks... read more ).
Pearls & Pitfalls
Radiation burns most commonly result from prolonged exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (sunburn Sunburn Sunburn is characterized by erythema and sometimes pain and blisters caused by overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. Treatment is similar to that for thermal burns, including cool compresses... read more ) but may result from prolonged or intense exposure to other sources of ultraviolet radiation (eg, tanning beds) or from exposure to sources of x-ray or other nonsolar radiation (see Radiation Exposure and Contamination Radiation Exposure and Contamination Ionizing radiation injures tissues variably, depending on factors such as radiation dose, rate of exposure, type of radiation, and part of the body exposed. Symptoms may be local (eg, burns)... read more ).
Chemical burns may result from strong acids, strong alkalis (eg, lye, cement), phenols, cresols, mustard gas, phosphorus, and certain petroleum products (eg, gasoline, paint thinner). Skin and deeper tissue necrosis caused by these agents may progress over several hours.
Electrical burns Electrical Injuries Electrical injury is damage caused by generated electrical current passing through the body. Symptoms range from skin burns to damage to internal organs and other soft tissues, cardiac arrhythmias... read more result from heat generation and electroporation of cell membranes associated with massive currents of electrons. High voltage (> 1000 volts) electrical burns often cause extensive deep tissue damage to electrically conductive tissues, such as muscles, nerves, and blood vessels, despite minimal apparent cutaneous injury.
Events associated with a burn (eg, jumping from a burning building, being struck by debris, motor vehicle crash) may cause other injuries. Abuse should be considered in young children and older patients with burns (see Child Maltreatment Overview of Child Maltreatment Child maltreatment includes all types of abuse and neglect of a child under the age of 18 by a parent, caregiver, or another person in a custodial role (eg, clergy, coach, teacher) that results... read more and Elder Abuse Elder Abuse Elder abuse is physical or psychologic mistreatment, neglect, or financial exploitation of older adults. Common types of elder abuse include physical abuse, psychologic abuse, neglect, and financial... read more ).
Pathophysiology of Burns
Heat from burns causes protein denaturation and thus coagulative necrosis. Around the coagulated tissue, platelets aggregate, vessels constrict, and marginally perfused tissue (known as the zone of stasis) can extend around the injury. In the zone of stasis, tissue is hyperemic and inflamed.
Damage to the normal epidermal barrier allows
External fluid loss
Damaged tissues often become edematous, further enhancing intravascular volume loss. Heat loss can be significant because thermoregulation of the damaged dermis is absent, particularly in wounds that are exposed.
Superficial (formerly 1st-degree) burns are limited to the epidermis.
Partial-thickness (formerly 2nd-degree) burns involve part of the dermis and can be superficial or deep.
Superficial partial-thickness burns involve the papillary (more superficial) dermis. These burns heal within 1 to 2 weeks, and scarring is usually minimal. Healing occurs from epidermal cells lining sweat gland ducts and hair follicles; these cells grow to the surface, then migrate across the surface to meet cells from neighboring glands and follicles.
Deep partial-thickness burns involve the deeper dermis and take ≥ 2 weeks to heal. Healing occurs only from hair follicles, and scarring is common and may be severe.
Full-thickness (formerly 3rd-degree) burns extend through the entire dermis and into the underlying fat. Healing occurs only from the periphery; these burns, unless small, require excision and skin grafting.
Complications of Burns
Burns cause both systemic and local complications. The major factors contributing to systemic complications are breakdown of skin integrity and fluid loss. Local complications include eschars and contractures and scarring.
Systemic burn complications
The greater the percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) involved, the greater the risk of developing systemic complications. Risk factors for severe systemic complications and mortality include all of the following:
Partial and full-thickness burns of ≥ 40% of TBSA
Age > 60 years or < 2 years
Presence of simultaneous major trauma or smoke inhalation
The most common systemic complications are hypovolemia and infection.
Hypovolemia, causing hypoperfusion of burned tissue and sometimes shock, can result from fluid losses due to burns that are deep or that involve large parts of the body surface; whole-body edema from escape of intravascular volume into the interstitium and cells also develops. Also, insensible fluid losses can be significant. Hypoperfusion of burned tissue also may result from direct damage to blood vessels or from vasoconstriction secondary to hypovolemia.
Infection, even in small burns, is a common cause of sepsis Sepsis and Septic Shock Sepsis is a clinical syndrome of life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated response to infection. In septic shock, there is critical reduction in tissue perfusion; acute failure... read more and mortality, as well as local complications. Impaired host defenses and devitalized tissue enhance bacterial invasion and growth. The most common pathogens are streptococci and staphylococci during the first few days and gram-negative bacteria after 5 to 7 days; however, flora are almost always mixed.
Metabolic abnormalities may include hypoalbuminemia that is partly due to hemodilution (secondary to replacement fluids) and partly due to protein loss into the extravascular space through damaged capillaries. Dilutional electrolyte deficiencies can develop; they include hypomagnesemia Hypomagnesemia Hypomagnesemia is serum magnesium concentration < 1.8 mg/dL (< 0.70 mmol/L). Causes include inadequate magnesium intake and absorption or increased excretion due to hypercalcemia or drugs... read more , hypophosphatemia Hypophosphatemia Hypophosphatemia is a serum phosphate concentration < 2.5 mg/dL (0.81 mmol/L). Causes include alcohol use disorder, burns, starvation, and diuretic use. Clinical features include muscle weakness... read more , and hypokalemia Hypokalemia Hypokalemia is serum potassium concentration < 3.5 mEq/L (< 3.5 mmol/L) caused by a deficit in total body potassium stores or abnormal movement of potassium into cells. The most common... read more . Metabolic acidosis may result from shock. Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome involving the breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue. Symptoms and signs include muscle weakness, myalgias, and reddish-brown urine, although this triad is... read more or hemolysis can result from deep thermal or electrical burns of muscle or from muscle ischemia due to constricting eschars. Rhabdomyolysis causing myoglobinuria or hemolysis causing hemoglobinuria can lead to acute tubular necrosis Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN) Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is kidney injury characterized by acute tubular cell injury and dysfunction. Common causes are hypotension or sepsis that causes renal hypoperfusion and nephrotoxic... read more and acute kidney injury Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) Acute kidney injury is a rapid decrease in renal function over days to weeks, causing an accumulation of nitrogenous products in the blood (azotemia) with or without reduction in amount of urine... read more .
Hypothermia Hypothermia Hypothermia is a core body temperature < 35° C. Symptoms progress from shivering and lethargy to confusion, coma, and death. Mild hypothermia requires a warm environment and insulating blankets... read more may result from large volumes of cool IV fluids and extensive exposure of body surfaces to a cool emergency department environment, particularly in patients with extensive burns.
Ileus is common after extensive burns.
Local burn complications
Eschar is stiff, dead tissue caused by deep burns. A circumferential eschar, which completely encircles a limb (or sometimes the neck or torso), is potentially constricting. A constricting eschar limits tissue expansion in response to edema; instead, tissue pressure increases, eventually causing local ischemia. The ischemia threatens viability of limbs and digits distal to the eschar, and an eschar around the neck or thorax can compromise ventilation.
Scarring and contractures result from healing of deep burns. Depending on the extent of the scar, contracture deformities can appear at the joints. If the burn is located near joints (particularly in the hands), in the feet, or in the perineum, function can be severely impaired. Infection can increase scarring. Keloids Keloids Keloids are smooth overgrowths of fibroblastic tissue that arise in an area of injury (eg, lacerations, surgical scars, truncal acne) or, occasionally, spontaneously. Keloids are more frequent... read more form in some patients with burns, especially in patients with darker skin.
Symptoms and Signs of Burns
Wound symptoms and signs depend on burn depth:
Superficial burns: These burns are red, blanch markedly and widely with light pressure, and are painful and tender. Vesicles or bullae do not develop.
Superficial partial-thickness burns: These burns blanch with pressure and are painful and tender. Vesicles or bullae develop within 24 hours. The bases of vesicles and bullae are pink and subsequently develop a fibrinous exudate.
Deep partial-thickness burns: These burns may be white, red, or mottled red and white. They do not blanch and are less painful and tender than more superficial burns. A pinprick is often interpreted as pressure rather than sharp. Vesicles or bullae may develop; these burns are usually dry.
Full-thickness burns: These burns may be white and pliable, black and charred, brown and leathery, or bright red because of fixed hemoglobin in the subdermal region. Pale full-thickness burns may simulate normal skin except the skin does not blanch to pressure. Full-thickness burns are usually anesthetic or hypoesthetic. Hairs can be pulled easily from their follicles. Vesicles and bullae usually do not develop. Sometimes features that differentiate full thickness from deep partial thickness burns take 24 to 48 hours to develop.
Diagnosis of Burns
Clinical assessment of burn extent and depth
Laboratory testing and chest x-ray in admitted patients
Location and depth of burned areas are recorded on a burn diagram. Burns with an appearance compatible with both deep partial-thickness and full-thickness are presumed to be full-thickness.
The percentage of TBSA involved is calculated; only partial-thickness and full-thickness burns are included in this calculation (1 Diagnosis reference Burns are injuries of skin or other tissue caused by thermal, radiation, chemical, or electrical contact. Burns are classified by depth (superficial and deep partial-thickness, and full-thickness)... read more ). For adults, the percentage TBSA for parts of the body is estimated by the rule of nines (); for smaller scattered burns, estimates can be based on the size of the patient’s entire opened hand (not the palm only), which is about 1% of TBSA. The hand size method is particularly helpful in calculating the burn surface area of a partially burned area. For example, if an arm (which would represent 9% if totally involved) is not completely burned, the patient's hand size can be used as a template to estimate the extent of scattered uninvolved (or involved) areas. The uninvolved area can be subtracted from the 9% area of the arm to more accurately calculate the burned surface area of the arm. Children have proportionally larger heads and smaller lower extremities, so the percentage TBSA is more accurately estimated using the Lund-Browder chart ().
(A) Rule of nines (for adults) and (B) Lund-Browder chart (for children) for estimating extent of burns
(Redrawn from Artz CP, JA Moncrief: The Treatment of Burns, ed. 2. Philadelphia, WB Saunders Company, 1969; used with permission.)
In hospitalized patients at risk for systemic complications, hemoglobin and hematocrit, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, albumin, protein, phosphate, and ionized calcium should be measured. ECG, urinalysis for myoglobin, and a chest x-ray are also required. Myoglobinuria (suggesting hemolysis or rhabdomyolysis) is suggested by urine that is grossly dark or that tests positive for blood on dipstick in the absence of microscopic red blood cells. These tests are repeated as needed. Muscle compartments Diagnosis Compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure within a closed fascial space, resulting in tissue ischemia. The earliest symptom is pain out of proportion to the severity of injury. Diagnosis... read more are evaluated in patients with myoglobinuria.
Burn infection is suggested by wound exudate, impaired wound healing, or systemic evidence of infection (eg, feeding intolerance, decrease in platelet count, increase in serum glucose level). Fever and white blood cell count elevation are common in burn patients without infection and therefore are unreliable signs of developing sepsis. If the diagnosis is unclear, infection can be confirmed by biopsy; cultures from the wound surface or exudate are unreliable. Many centers test patients on admission for colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
1. Kamolz LP, Parvizi D, Giretzlehner M, et al: Burn surface area calculation: What do we need in future. Burns 40(1):171-172, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2013.07.021
Treatment of Burns
IV fluids for partial and full thickness burns > 10% of total body surface area (TBSA)
Wound cleansing, dressing, and serial assessment
Transfer or referral of selected patients to burn centers
Surgery and physical therapy for deep partial-thickness and full-thickness burns
Treatment begins in the prehospital setting. The first priorities are the same as for any injured patient: ABC (airway, breathing, and circulation). An airway is provided, ventilation is supported, and possible associated smoke inhalation Smoke Inhalation When smoke is inhaled, toxic products of combustion injure airway tissues and/or cause metabolic effects. Hot smoke usually burns only the pharynx because the incoming gas cools quickly. An... read more is treated with 100% oxygen. Ongoing burning is extinguished, and smoldering and hot material is removed. All clothing is removed. Chemicals, except powders, are flushed with water; powders should be brushed off before wetting. Burns caused by acids, alkalis, or organic compounds (eg, phenols, cresols, petrochemicals) are flushed with copious amounts of water continuing for at least 20 min after nothing of the original solution seems to remain.
IV fluids are given to patients in shock or with partial and full thickness burns > 10% TBSA. A 14- to 16-gauge venous cannula is placed in 1 or 2 peripheral veins through unburned skin if possible. Venous cutdown, which has a high risk of infection, is avoided.
Initial fluid volume is guided by treatment of clinically evident shock (1 Treatment references Burns are injuries of skin or other tissue caused by thermal, radiation, chemical, or electrical contact. Burns are classified by depth (superficial and deep partial-thickness, and full-thickness)... read more ). If shock Treatment Shock is a state of organ hypoperfusion with resultant cellular dysfunction and death. Mechanisms may involve decreased circulating volume, decreased cardiac output, and vasodilation, sometimes... read more is absent, fluid administration aims to replace the predicted deficit and supply maintenance fluids. The Parkland formula (4 mL/kg) × % TBSA burned (partial and full thickness burns) is used to estimate fluid volume needs in the first 24 hours after the burn (not after presentation to the hospital) and determines the rate of IV fluid administration. Half the calculated amount is given over the first 8 hours; the remainder is given over the next 16 hours. Fluid is given as lactated Ringer's solution because large amounts of normal saline could result in hyperchloremic acidosis.
For example, in a 100-kg man with a 50% TBSA burn, fluid volume by the Parkland formula would be
Half of the volume, 10 L, is given in the first 8 hours after injury as a constant infusion, and the remaining 10 L is given over the following 16 hours. In practice, this formula is only a starting point, and infusion rates are adjusted based on clinical response. Urine output, typically measured with an indwelling catheter, is the usual indicator of clinical response; the goal is to maintain output of 0.5 mL/kg/hr in adults and 1.0 mL/kg/hour in children (< 30 kg). Additional pediatric maintenance fluid requirements Maintenance fluid Dehydration is significant depletion of body water and, to varying degrees, electrolytes. Symptoms and signs include thirst, lethargy, dry mucosa, decreased urine output, and, as the degree... read more should be calculated and added separately because children are at risk of hypoglycemia in high volume resuscitation. When giving typical large volumes of fluid, it is also important to avoid fluid overload and consequent heart failure and compartment syndrome Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure within a closed fascial space, resulting in tissue ischemia. The earliest symptom is pain out of proportion to the severity of injury. Diagnosis... read more . Fluid administration can be titrated to achieve only the goal urine output. Clinical parameters, including urine output and signs of shock or heart failure, are recorded at least hourly on a flow chart.
Pearls & Pitfalls
Some clinicians give colloid, usually albumin, after 12 hours to patients who have larger burns, are very young or very old, or have heart disease and require large fluid volumes.
If urine output is inadequate despite administration of a large volume of crystalloid, consultation with a burn center is necessary because these patients are at increased risk of resuscitation complications, including compartment syndromes of the abdomen and extremities. Patients with inadequate urine output despite administration of a large volume of crystalloid may respond to an infusion of colloid or other measures. In meta-analyses, administration of albumin was shown to decrease total fluid volumes by about half at 72 hours post-injury. Meta-analyses suggest that additional trials are required to determine the effect on mortality and morbidity of the administration of colloid with crystalloid (2, 3, 4 Treatment references Burns are injuries of skin or other tissue caused by thermal, radiation, chemical, or electrical contact. Burns are classified by depth (superficial and deep partial-thickness, and full-thickness)... read more ).
For patients with rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome involving the breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue. Symptoms and signs include muscle weakness, myalgias, and reddish-brown urine, although this triad is... read more , fluid administration is the mainstay of treatment, and the goal should be to maintain urine output of at least 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg/hour. Although some authorities have recommended alkalinizing the urine by giving IV fluids containing sodium bicarbonate to treat rhabdomyolysis, there is little evidence of improved patient outcomes, so alkalinization is no longer recommended.
Initial wound care
After adequate analgesia, the wound is cleansed with soap and water, and all loose debris is removed. Water should be room temperature or warmer to avoid inducing hypothermia. Ruptured blisters, except for small ones on palms, fingers, and soles, are debrided. Unruptured blisters can sometimes be left intact but should be treated by application of a topical antimicrobial. In patients who are to be transferred to a burn center, clean dry dressings can be applied (burn creams may interfere with burn wound assessment at the receiving facility), and patients are kept warm and relatively comfortable with IV opioids.
After the wound is cleansed and is assessed by the final treatment provider, burns can be treated topically. For shallow partial-thickness burns, topical treatment alone is usually adequate. All deep partial-thickness burns and full-thickness burns should ultimately be treated with excision and grafting, but in the interim, topical treatments are appropriate.
Topical treatment may be with
Antimicrobial salves (eg, 1% silver sulfadiazine, mafenide acetate)
Commercial dressings incorporating silver (eg, sustained-release nanocrystalline silver dressings)
Biosynthetic wound dressings (also called artificial skin products)
Silver dressings should be considered only in partial-thickness burns with significant wound moisture because activation of silver requires wound moisture. Silver sulfadiazine may induce transient leukopenia. Some (but not all) silver-impregnated dressings must be kept moist but can be changed as infrequently as every 7 days (to minimize pain associated with repeated wound care).
Topical salves must be changed daily. Artificial skin products and silver impregnated dressings are not changed routinely but can result in underlying purulence necessitating removal, particularly when wounds are deep. Burned extremities should be elevated. Compression dressings such as elastic wraps should be used to reduce edema and improve wound healing.
A tetanus toxoid booster Preparations A vaccine for tetanus alone is available, but the tetanus vaccine is typically combined with those for diphtheria and/or pertussis. The vaccine for diphtheria is available only in combination... read more (subcutaneously or IM) is given to patients with all but minor burns who have been previously fully vaccinated and who have not received a booster within the past 5 years. Patients whose booster was more remote or who had not received a full vaccine series are given tetanus immune globulin (human) 250 units IM and concomitant active vaccination (see Prevention of Tetanus Prevention Tetanus is acute poisoning from a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Symptoms are intermittent tonic spasms of voluntary muscles. Spasm of the masseters accounts for the name... read more ).
Escharotomy (incision of the eschar) of constricting eschars may be necessary to allow adequate expansion of the thorax or perfusion of an extremity. However, constricting eschars rarely threaten extremity viability during the first few hours, so if transfer to a burn center can occur within that time, escharotomy can typically be deferred until then. If timely transfer is not possible, escharotomy should be done with the input of a consulting burn center.
Hypothermia is treated Treatment Hypothermia is a core body temperature < 35° C. Symptoms progress from shivering and lethargy to confusion, coma, and death. Mild hypothermia requires a warm environment and insulating blankets... read more , and pain is relieved. Opioids (eg, morphine) should always be given IV, and large doses may be needed for adequate pain control. Treatment of electrolyte deficits may require supplemental calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), or phosphate (PO4).
Nutritional support Overview of Nutritional Support Many undernourished patients need nutritional support, which aims to increase lean body mass. Oral feeding can be difficult for some patients with anorexia or with eating or absorption problems... read more is indicated for patients with burns > 20% TBSA or preexisting undernutrition. Support with a feeding tube begins as soon as possible if oral nutrition is not feasible or adequate. Parenteral support is rarely necessary.
Hospitalization and referral
After initial treatment and stabilization, the need for transfer and/or hospitalization is assessed. Consultation with a burn center to discuss treatment options is strongly suggested for
Full-thickness burns > 1% TBSA
Partial-thickness burns > 5% TBSA
Burns of the hands, face, feet, or perineum (partial-thickness or deeper)
Because of the many factors involved in burn outcome, early discussion of the specifics of each case with a burn center is probably more helpful than applying rigid criteria without consultation.
In addition, transfer and/or hospitalization may be necessary if
Patients are < 2 years or > 60 years.
Adherence to home care measures is likely to be poor or difficult (eg, if continuous elevation of the hands or feet, usually difficult at home, is required).
Many experts recommend that all burns, except for superficial burns < 1% TBSA, be treated by experienced physicians and that urgent burn center follow-up treatments be strongly considered for all partial or full-thickness burns > 2% TBSA. Maintaining adequate analgesia and exercise can be difficult for many patients and caregivers. Even patients who are not treated as inpatients can benefit from transferral or early referral to a burn center so that wound care, specialized dressings, and early range-of-motion exercises can be initiated.
Prophylactic systemic antibiotics are not given.
Initial empiric antibiotic treatment for apparent infection during the first 5 days should target staphylococci and streptococci (eg, with vancomycin for inpatients who have a positive MRSA colonization swab). Infections that develop after 5 days are treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotic selection is subsequently adjusted based on culture and sensitivity results. Excision of a burn wound with deeper infection optimizes the chance of resolving the infection. Skin grafting should be delayed until infection is resolved.
Surgery is indicated for burns that are not expected to heal within 2 weeks, including most deep partial-thickness burns and all full-thickness burns. Eschars are removed as soon as possible, ideally within 3 days to prevent sepsis Sepsis and Septic Shock Sepsis is a clinical syndrome of life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated response to infection. In septic shock, there is critical reduction in tissue perfusion; acute failure... read more and facilitate early wound grafting, which shortens hospitalization and improves the functional result. If burns are extensive and life threatening, the largest eschars are removed first to close as much burn area as early as possible. (See also How To Do Burn Escharotomy How To Do Burn Escharotomy Eschar is stiff, dead skin tissue caused by deep partial-thickness and full-thickness (formerly 2nd- and 3rd-degree) burns. Circumferential eschar on a limb constricts distal circulation, and... read more .)
After excision, grafting proceeds ideally using partial-thickness autografts (the patient’s skin), which are permanent (5 Treatment references Burns are injuries of skin or other tissue caused by thermal, radiation, chemical, or electrical contact. Burns are classified by depth (superficial and deep partial-thickness, and full-thickness)... read more ). Autografts can be transplanted as sheets (solid pieces of skin) or meshed grafts (sheets of donor skin that are stretched to cover a larger area by making multiple, regularly spaced, small incisions). Meshed grafts are used in areas where appearance is less of a concern when burns are > 20% TBSA and donor skin is scarce. Meshed grafts heal with an uneven gridlike appearance, sometimes with excessive hypertrophic scarring.
When burns are > 40% TBSA and the supply of autograft material appears insufficient, an artificial dermal regeneration template can be used as temporary coverage (5 Treatment references Burns are injuries of skin or other tissue caused by thermal, radiation, chemical, or electrical contact. Burns are classified by depth (superficial and deep partial-thickness, and full-thickness)... read more ). Allografts (viable skin usually from cadaver donors) or xenografts (eg, pig skin) can also be used temporarily; they are rejected, sometimes within 10 to 14 days. Both types of temporary coverage must ultimately be replaced with autografts.
Fasciotomy is done when edema within a muscle compartment elevates compartment pressure > 30 mm Hg. Compartment syndrome is rare in burns other than high voltage electrical burns Electrical Injuries Electrical injury is damage caused by generated electrical current passing through the body. Symptoms range from skin burns to damage to internal organs and other soft tissues, cardiac arrhythmias... read more (6 Treatment references Burns are injuries of skin or other tissue caused by thermal, radiation, chemical, or electrical contact. Burns are classified by depth (superficial and deep partial-thickness, and full-thickness)... read more ).
Physical and occupational therapy
Physical and occupational therapy are begun at admission to help minimize scarring and contractures, particularly for body surfaces with high skin tension and frequent movement (eg, face, hands), and to optimize function. Active and passive range-of-motion exercises become easier as the initial edema subsides (enhanced by appropriate elevation and compression); they are done once or twice daily. After grafting, exercises are often suspended for 3 days, then resumed, but at some centers are initiated within 24 hours of grafting. Extremities affected by deep partial-thickness burns or full-thickness burns are splinted in functional positions as soon as possible and kept splinted continuously (except during exercise) until the graft has been placed, healing has occurred, or both.
Outpatient burn treatment
Outpatient treatment includes keeping burns clean and, to the extent possible, keeping the affected body part elevated and, for extremities, compressed (eg, by elastic wraps over dressings). Dressings should be changed daily for burns treated with topical salves. The salve is applied and then covered with a dry nonadherent gauze dressing and compression wraps. Silver dressings should be changed every 7 to 10 days, depending on the specific product recommendation. Dressing change simply involves removing the older dressing and replacing it with a new one. Biosynthetic wound dressings should not be changed in the absence of purulence. Biosynthetic dressings should simply be covered with dry gauze, which is changed daily. (See also How To Debride and Dress a Burn How To Debride and Dress a Burn Burn wounds typically need debridement and/or dressing. Debridement (removal of nonviable tissue) and wound dressings are used to decrease the risk of infection and provide comfort in minor... read more .)
Outpatient follow-up visits are scheduled as needed depending on burn severity (eg, for very minor burns, initial visit within 24 hours, then subsequent visits every 7 to 10 days). Visits include debridement if indicated, reassessment of burn depth, and evaluation of the need for physical therapy and grafting. Patients should return earlier if they note signs of infection, such as increasing redness extending from the wound edges, increasing purulence and pain, or a change in the appearance of the wound with development of black or red spots. Should these signs occur, medical evaluation should ensue urgently. Outpatient treatment is acceptable for minor burn-wound cellulitis in healthy patients aged 2 to 60 years; hospitalization is indicated for other infections.
1. Pham TN, Cancio CL, Gibran NS: American Burn Association practice guidelines burn shock resuscitation. J Burn Care Res J 29(1):257-266, 2008. doi: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e31815f3876
2. Eljaiek R, Heylbroeck C, Dubois MJ: Albumin administration for fluid resuscitation in burn patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Burns 43(1):17-24, 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2016.08.001
3. Greenhalgh DG, Cartotto R, Taylor SL: Burn resuscitation practices in North America: Results of the Acute Burn ResUscitation Multicenter Prospective Trial (ABRUPT). Ann Surg 10.1097/SLA.0000000000005166, 2021. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000005166.
4. Navickis RJ, Greenhalgh DG, Wilkes MM: Albumin in burn shock resuscitation: A meta-analysis of controlled clinical studies. J Burn Care Res 37(3):e268-278, 2016. doi: 10.1097/BCR.0000000000000201
5. Kagan RJ, Peck MD, Ahrenholz DH, et al: Surgical management of the burn wound and use of skin substitutes: An expert panel white paper. J Burn Care Res 34:e60–79, 2013. doi: 10.1097/BCR.0b013e31827039a6
6. International Society for Burn Injury (ISBI) Practice Guidelines Committee: Steering Committee; Advisory Committee. ISBI Practice Guidelines for Burn Care. Burns 42(5):953-1021, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2016.05.013
Clues to burn depth include presence of vesicles or bullae (suggesting a partial-thickness burn); and decreased sensation, dry leathery eschar, hypoesthesia, and ability to easily pull hairs (suggesting a full-thickness burn).
If partial or full-thickness burns are > 10% TBSA, give IV lactated Ringer's solution at an initial rate guided by the Parkland formula (4 mL/kg × %TBSA burned during the first 24 hours after the burn) and adjusted based on hourly urine output.
For eschars that are circumferential or constricting, consider escharotomy.
Supportive measures include adequate analgesia and, if burns are > 20% TBSA, early nutritional support.
Strongly consider burn center consultation if burns involve the hands, feet, or perineum (partial-thickness or deeper); are> 5% TBSA (partial-thickness or deeper); are > 1% TBSA (full-thickness); or if patients are> 60 years or < 2 years of age or are unlikely to fully adhere to home care measures.
Treat surgically if an eschar is present, compartmental pressure is > 30 mm Hg, or, usually, if burns are full or deep partial-thickness.
For infections, apply topical antimicrobials (for prevention); routinely inspect burns (for early diagnosis of complications); and use systemic antibiotics, change topical treatment as needed, and occasionally excise the infected area (for treatment).
Begin physical and occupational therapy early to minimize scarring and contractures.
Drugs Mentioned In This Article
|Drug Name||Select Trade|
|Aluvea , BP-50% Urea , BP-K50, Carmol, CEM-Urea, Cerovel, DermacinRx Urea, Epimide-50, Gord Urea, Gordons Urea, Hydro 35 , Hydro 40, Kerafoam, Kerafoam 42, Keralac, Keralac Nailstik, Keratol, Keratol Plus, Kerol, Kerol AD, Kerol ZX, Latrix, Mectalyte, Nutraplus, RE Urea 40, RE Urea 50 , Rea Lo, Remeven, RE-U40, RYNODERM , U40, U-Kera, Ultra Mide 25, Ultralytic-2, Umecta, Umecta Nail Film, URALISS, Uramaxin , Uramaxin GT, Urea, Ureacin-10, Ureacin-20, Urealac , Ureaphil, Uredeb, URE-K , Uremez-40, Ure-Na, Uresol, Utopic, Vanamide, Xurea, X-VIATE|
|Albuked , Albumarc, Albuminar, Albuminex, AlbuRx , Albutein, Buminate, Flexbumin, Kedbumin, Macrotec, Plasbumin, Plasbumin-20|
|Alka-Seltzer Heartburn Relief, Baros, Neut|
|Silvadene, SSD, SSD AF, Thermazene|
|No brand name available|
|ARYMO ER, Astramorph PF, Avinza, DepoDur, Duramorph PF, Infumorph, Kadian, MITIGO, MORPHABOND, MS Contin, MSIR, Opium Tincture, Oramorph SR, RMS, Roxanol, Roxanol-T|
|FIRVANQ, Vancocin, Vancocin Powder, VANCOSOL|