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Urine Tests: Normal Values

By

Osvaldo Padilla

, MD, MPH, Texas Tech Health Science Center;


Jude Abadie

, PhD, Texas Tech University Health Science Center

Last full review/revision Dec 2021| Content last modified Dec 2021
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Reference values vary based on several factors, including the specific laboratory that supplies them. A patient's urine test values should be interpreted based on the reference value of the laboratory in which the test was done; the laboratory typically provides these values with the test result. Representative values are listed in alphabetical order in the following table.

Table

Representative Laboratory Reference Values: Urine

Test

Specimen

Conventional Units

SI Units

Aldosterone

Urine, 24 hours

5–19 mcg/24 hours

13.9–52.6 nmol/24 hour

Amino acids, total

Urine, 24 hours

200–400 mg/24 hours

14–29 nmol/24 hours

Amylase

Urine, timed

6.5–48.1 U/hour

Calcium (unrestricted diet)

Urine, timed

100–300 mg/day

2.5–7.5 mmol/day

Catecholamines, total

Urine, 24 hours

< 100 mcg/m2/24 hours

< 591 nmol/m2/24 hours

Chloride

Urine, timed

80–250 mEq/day

80–250 mmol/day

Copper

Urine, 24 hours

0–100 mcg/24 ours

0–1.6 mcmol/24 hours

Coproporphyrin

Urine, 24 hours

50–250 mcg/24 hours

76–382 nmol/24 hours

Cortisol, free

Urine, 24 hours

< 90 mcg/24 hours

< 248 nmol/24 hours

Creatine:

  • Females

Urine, 24 hours

0–100 mg/24 hours

0–763 mmol/24 hours

  • Males

Urine, 24 hours

4–40 mg/24 hours

30–305 mmol/24 hours

Creatinine, weight-based

Urine, 24 hours

15–25 mg/kg/24 hours

133–221 mmol/kg/ 24 hours

D-xylose excretion 5 hours after ingestion of 25 g of D-xylose

Urine, 5 hour collection

5–8 g

33–53 mmol

Estriol, females

Urine, 24 hours

> 12 mg/24 hours

> 42 mcmol/24 hours

17-Hydroxycorticosteroids, fractionated, adults ≥ 18 years:

  • Cortisol

Urine, 24 hours

3.5–4.5 mcg/24 hours

9.7–12.4 nmol/24 hours

  • Cortisone

Urine, 24 hours

17–129 mcg/24 hours

47–359 nmol/24 hours

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)

Urine, 24 hours

2–9 mg/24 hours

10.4–46.8 mcmol/24 hours

17-Ketosteroid, fractionated, females > 12 years:

  • Androsterone

Urine, 24 hours

55–1589 mcg/24 hours

  • Pregnanetriol

Urine, 24 hours

59–1391 mcg/24 hours

17-Ketosteroid, fractionated, males > 12 years:

  • Androsterone

Urine, 24 hours

234–2703 mcg/24 hours

  • Etiocholanolone

Urine, 24 hours

151–3198 mcg/24 hours

  • 11-Hydroxyandrosterone

Urine, 24 hours

66–1032 mcg/24 hours

  • 11-Hydroxyetiocholanolone

Urine, 24 hours

17–1006 mcg/24 hours

  • 11-Ketoandrosterone

Urine, 24 hours

4–55 mcg/24 hours

  • 11-Ketoetiocholanolone

Urine, 24 hours

51–1016 mcg/24 hours

  • Pregnanetriol

Urine, 24 hours

245–1701 mcg/24 hours

Metanephrines, fractionated, normotensive patients ≥ 18 years:

  • Females, metanephrine

Urine, 24 hours

30–180 mcg/24 hours

  • Females, total metanephrines

Urine, 24 hours

142–510 mcg/24 hours

  • Males, metanephrine

Urine, 24 hours

44–261 mcg/24 hours

  • Males, total metanephrines

Urine, 24 hours

190–583 mcg/24 hours

Metanephrines, fractionated, normotensive males and females aged 18–29 years:

  • Normetanephrine

Urine, 24 hours

103–390 mcg/24 hours

Metanephrines, fractionated, hypertensive males and females:

  • Metanephrine

Urine, 24 hours

< 400 mcg/24 hours

  • Normetanephrine

Urine, 24 hours

< 900 mcg/24 hours

  • Total metanephrines

Urine, 24 hours

< 1300 mcg/24 hours

Microalbumin

Urine, 24 hours

< 30 mg/24 hours

Microalbumin, albumin/ creatinine ratio

Urine, random

< 20 mcg/mg

< 20 mg/g

Osmolality

Urine, random

38–1400 mOsm/kg H2O

Oxalate

Urine, 24 hours

0.11–0.46 mmol/ specimen*

Phosphate, tubular reabsorption

Urine, random

79–94% of filtered load

Porphobilinogens

Urine, random

0–0.5 mg/g creatinine

Potassium

Urine, 24 hours

25–100 mEq/24 hours

25–100 mmol/24 hours

Protein, total

Urine, 24 hours

< 100 mg/24 hours

Sodium

Urine, 24 hours

100–260 mEq/24 hours

100–260 mmol/24 hours

Uric acid

Urine, 24 hours

250–750 mg/24 hours

1.48–4.43 mmol/24 hours

Urinalysis, routine†

  • pH

Urine, random

5–7

Urinalysis, routine, dipstick testing†:

  • Bilirubin

Urine, random

Negative

  • Blood

Urine, random

Negative

  • Glucose

Urine, random

Negative

  • Ketones

Urine, random

Negative

  • Leukocyte esterase

Urine, random

Negative

  • Nitrites

Urine, random

Negative

  • Protein

Urine, random

Negative

  • Urobilinogen

Urine, random

0.2–1.0 EU

Urobilinogen

Urine, 24 hours

0.05–2.5 mg/24 hours

0.08–4.22 mcmol/24 hours

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

Urine, 24 hours

> 14 years old: < 8 mg/24 hours

< 40.4 mol/24 hours

*Value is based on 24-hour collection.

†Normal findings detected by microscopic examination can include a few red blood cells (especially in menstruating women), white blood cells, epithelial cells, bacteria, yeast cells, crystals (eg, calcium oxalate, triple phosphate, amorphous phosphates and urates), sperm, and unidentifiable materials. Large amounts of these substances or the presence of certain other materials may be abnormal.

EU = Ehrlich units.

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