(See also Overview of Antibiotics.)
Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics used to treat serious bacterial infections, such as those caused by gram-negative bacteria (especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa).
Aminoglycosides include the following:
Spectinomycin is chemically related to aminoglycosides and works in a similar way. It is not available in the United States.
Aminoglycosides work by preventing bacteria from producing proteins they need to grow and multiply.
These antibiotics are poorly absorbed when taken by mouth, so they are usually given intravenously. These antibiotics are usually used with another antibiotic that is are effective against many types of bacteria (called a broad-spectrum antibiotic).
All aminoglycosides can damage the ears and kidneys. Thus if possible, doctors often choose a different type of antibiotic. In the United States, kanamycin and neomycin are available only for topical and oral use.
If aminoglycosides are taken during pregnancy (see Drug Use During Pregnancy) harmful effects on the fetus (such as hearing loss) are possible, but sometimes the benefits of treatment may outweigh the risks.
Use of aminoglycosides during breastfeeding is generally considered acceptable.