Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations
Cerebral contusions are bruises of the brain, usually caused by a direct, strong blow to the head. Cerebral lacerations are tears in brain tissue, caused by a foreign object or pushed-in bone fragment from a skull fracture.
Cerebral contusions and lacerations involve structural brain damage and thus are more serious than concussions. Contusions may be caused by the sudden acceleration of the brain that follows a jolt—as may be delivered by a forceful blow to the head—or by the sudden deceleration that occurs when a moving head strikes an immovable object (as when a person's head hits the dashboard or the steering wheel in a frontal-impact motor vehicle crash). The brain can be damaged at the point of impact and on the opposite side by striking the inside of the skull. Contusions and lacerations can cause bleeding or swelling in the brain.
Contusions and lacerations may be very small, causing only minimal damage to the brain, with few symptoms or symptoms of minor head injury. However, with larger injuries, or if swelling or bleeding from a small injury is severe, people may have symptoms of severe head injury (see Severe head injury). For example, people often are unconscious for a short time (such as a few minutes or less) or longer. When awake, people often are drowsy, confused, restless, or agitated. They may also have vomiting, seizures, or impaired balance or coordination. The ability to think, control emotions, move, feel, speak, see, hear, smell, and remember may be impaired. A more severe injury causes swelling within the brain, damaging brain tissue further. Herniation of the brain may result, sometimes leading to coma.
Doctors do computed tomography (CT) to diagnose a contusion or laceration. If bleeding and swelling are minor, people are hospitalized and observed, usually for up to a week. If bleeding is severe, doctors treat them as if they had a severe head injury (see Severe head injury). Often people are admitted to an intensive care unit. Doctors keep the blood pressure and blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide at desirable levels. They may give supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, pain relief, and sedation. Fever and seizures are treated.
To measure pressure in the brain, doctors may implant a pressure gauge inside the skull or insert a catheter into one of the internal spaces (ventricles) within the brain. If bleeding leads to herniation, the blood may need to be surgically removed to prevent compression of the brain. However, if removing the blood involves removing brain tissue, then brain function may eventually become impaired.