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Overview of Congenital Genitourinary Anomalies

By Ronald Rabinowitz, MD, Professor of Urology and Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center ; Jimena Cubillos, MD, Associate Professor of Clinical Urology and Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry

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Congenital anatomic anomalies of the GU tract are more common than those of any other organ system.

Urinary tract anomalies predispose patients to many complications, including urinary tract infection, obstruction, stasis, calculus formation, and impaired renal function.

Genital anomalies may cause voiding or sexual dysfunction, impaired fertility, psychosocial difficulties, or a combination.

GU anomalies frequently require surgical reconstruction.

Many GU anomalies are diagnosed in utero via routine prenatal ultrasonography. Some congenital renal anomalies (eg, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, medullary sponge kidney, hereditary nephritis) typically do not manifest until adulthood.