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Blood Tests: Normal Values

by Frank H. Wians, Jr., PhD

Normal Laboratory Values: Blood, Plasma, and Serum

Test

Specimen

Conventional Units

SI Units

Acetoacetate

Plasma

< 1 mg/dL

< 0.1 mmol/L

Acetylcholinesterase (ACE), RBC

Blood

26.7–49.2 U/g Hb

Acid phosphatase

Serum

0.5–5.5 U/L

0–0.9 μkat/L

Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)

Plasma

25–35 sec

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Serum

9–52 pg/mL

2–11 pmol/L

Albumin

Serum

3.5–5.5 g/dL

35–55 g/L

Aldosterone:

Standing

Serum

7–20 ng/dL

194–554 pmol/L

Supine

Serum

2–5 ng/dL

55–138 pmol/L

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

Serum

36–92 U/L

0.5–1.5 μkat/L

Alpha 1 -antitrypsin (AAT)

Serum

83–199 mg/dL

Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)

Serum

0–20 ng/dL

0–20 pg/L

δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

Serum

15–23 μg/L

1.14–1.75 μmol/L

Aminotransferase, alanine (ALT)

Serum

0–35 U/L

0–0.58 pkat/L

Aminotransferase, aspartate (AST)

Serum

0–35 U/L

0–0.58 pkat/L

Ammonia

Plasma

40–80 μg/dL

23–47 μmol/L

Amylase

Serum

0–130 U/L

0–2.17 μkat/L

Antibodies to extractable nuclear antigen (AENA)

Serum

< 20.0 units

Anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies

Serum

≤ 5.0 units

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH; arginine vasopressin)

Plasma

< 1.7 pg/mL

< 1.57 pmol/L

Anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies, IgG

Serum

< 25 IU

Antimitochondrial M2 antibodies

Serum

< 0.1 units

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (cANCA)

Serum

Negative

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)

Serum

≤ 1.0 units

Anti–smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) titer

Serum

≤ 1:80

Antistreptolysin O titer

Serum

< 150 units

Antithyroid microsomal antibody titer

Serum

< 1:100

α 1 -Antitrypsin (AAT)

Serum

83–199 mg/dL

15.3–36.6 μmol/L

Apolipoproteins:

A-I, females

Serum

98–210 mg/dL

0.98–2.1 g/L

A-I, males

Serum

88–180 mg/dL

0.88–1.8 g/L

B-100, females

Serum

44–148 mg/dL

0.44–1.48 g/L

B-100, males

Serum

55–151 mg/dL

0.55–1.51 g/L

Bicarbonate

Serum

23–28 mEq/L

23–28 mmol/L

Bilirubin:

Direct

Serum

0–0.3 mg/dL

0–5.1 μmol/L

Total

Serum

0.3–1.2 mg/dL

5.1–20.5 μmol/L

Blood volume:

Plasma, females

Blood

28–43 mL/kg body wt

0.028–0.043 L/kg body wt

Plasma, males

Blood

25–44 mL/kg body wt

0.025–0.044 L/kg body wt

RBCs, females

Blood

20–30 mL/kg body wt

0.02–0.03 L/kg body wt

RBCs, males

Blood

25–35 mL/kg body wt

0.025–0.035 L/kg body wt

Brain (B-type) natriuretic peptide (BNP)

Plasma

< 100 pg/mL

Calcitonin, age ≥ 16 yr:

Females

Serum

< 8 pg/mL

Males

Serum

< 16 pg/mL

Calcium

Serum

9–10.5 mg/dL

2.2–2.6 mmol/L

Cancer antigen (CA):

CA 125

Serum

< 35 U/mL

CA 15-3

Serum

< 30 U/mL

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) content

Serum

23–28 mEq/L

23–28 mmol/L

Carbon dioxide partial pressure (P CO 2 )

Blood

35–45 mm Hg

Carboxyhemoglobin

Plasma

0.5–5%

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

Serum

< 2 ng/mL

< 2 μg/L

Carotene

Serum

75–300 μg/L

1.4–5.6 μmol/L

CD4:CD8 ratio

Blood

1–4

CD4+ T-cell count

Blood

640–1175/μL

0.64–1.18 x 10 9 /L

CD8+ T-cell count

Blood

335–875/μL

0.34–0.88 x 10 9 /L

Ceruloplasmin

Serum

25–43 mg/dL

250–430 mg/L

Chloride

Serum

98–106 mEq/L

98–106 mmol/L

Cholesterol, desirable level:

High-density lipoprotein (HDL-C)

Plasma

≥ 40 mg/dL

≥ 1.04 mmol/L

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C)

Plasma

≤ 130 mg/dL

≤ 3.36 mmol/L

Total (TC)

Plasma

150–199 mg/dL

3.88–5.15 mmol/L

Coagulation factors:

Factor I

Plasma

150–300 mg/dL

1.5–3.5 g/L

Factor II

Plasma

60–150% of normal

Factor IX

Plasma

60–150% of normal

Factor V

Plasma

60–150% of normal

Factor VII

Plasma

60–150% of normal

Factor VIII

Plasma

60–150% of normal

Factor X

Plasma

60–150% of normal

Factor XI

Plasma

60–150% of normal

Factor XII

Plasma

60–150% of normal

Complement:

C3

Serum

55–120 mg/dL

0.55–1.20 g/L

C4

Serum

20–59 mg/dL

0.20–0.59 g/L

Total

Serum

37–55 U/mL

37–55 kU/L

Copper

Serum

70–155 μg/L

11–24.3 μmol/L

Cortisol:

1 h after cosyntropin

Serum

> 18 μg/dL and usually ≥ 8 μg/dL above baseline

> 498 nmol/L and usually ≥ 221 nmol/L above baseline

At 5 pm

Serum

3–13 μg/dL

83–359 nmol/L

At 8 am

Serum

8–20 μg/dL

251–552 nmol/L

After overnight suppression test

Serum

< 5 μg/dL

< 138 nmol/L

C-peptide

Serum

0.9–4.3 ng/mL

297–1419 pmol/L

C-reactive protein (CRP)

Serum

< 0.5 mg/dL

< 0.005 g/L

C-reactive protein, highly sensitive (hsCRP)

Serum

< 1.1 mg/L

< 0.0011 g/L

Creatine kinase (CK)

Serum

30–170 U/L

0.5–2.83 μkat/L

Creatinine

Serum

0.7–1.3 mg/dL

61.9–115 μmol/L

d -Dimer

Plasma

≤ 300 ng/mL

≤ 300 μg/L

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S):

Females

Plasma

0.6–3.3 mg/mL

1.6–8.9 μmol/L

Males

Plasma

1.3–5.5 mg/mL

3.5–14.9 μmol/L

δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

Serum

15–23 μg/L

1.14–1.75 μmol/L

11-Deoxycortisol (DOC):

After metyrapone

Plasma

> 7 μg/dL

> 203 nmol/L

Basal

Plasma

< 5 μg/dL

< 145 nmol/L

d -Xylose level 2 h after ingestion of 25 g of d -xylose

Serum

> 20 mg/dL

> 1.3 nmol/L

Epinephrine, supine

Plasma

< 75 ng/L

< 410 pmol/L

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR):

Females

Blood

0–20 mm/h

0–20 mm/h

Males

Blood

0–15 mm/h

0–20 mm/h

Erythropoietin

Serum

4.0–18.5 mIU/mL

4.0–18.5 IU/L

Estradiol, females:

Day 1–10 of menstrual cycle

Serum

14–27 pg/mL

50–100 pmol/L

Day 11–20 of menstrual cycle

Serum

14–54 pg/mL

50–200 pmol/L

Day 21–30 of menstrual cycle

Serum

19–40 pg/mL

70–150 pmol/L

Estradiol, males

Serum

10–30 pg/mL

37–110 pmol/L

Ferritin

Serum

15–200 ng/mL

15–200 μg/L

α-Fetoprotein (AFP)

Serum

0–20 ng/dL

0–20 pg/L

Fibrinogen

Plasma

150–350 mg/dL

1.5–3.5 g/L

Folate (folic acid):

RBC

Blood

160–855 ng/mL

362–1937 nmol/L

Serum

Serum

2.5–20 ng/mL

5.7–45.3 nmol/L

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), females:

Follicular or luteal phase

Serum

5–20 mU/mL

5–20 U/L

Midcycle peak

Serum

30–50 mU/mL

30–50 U/L

Postmenopausal

Serum

> 35 mU/mL

> 35 U/L

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), adult males

Serum

5–15 mU/mL

5–15 U/L

Fructosamine

Plasma

200–285 mol/L

Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)

Serum

8–78 U/L

Gastrin

Serum

0–180 pg/mL

0–180 ng/L

Globulins:

Serum

2.5–3.5 g/dL

25–35 g/L

α 1 -Globulins

Serum

0.2–0.4 g/dL

2–4 g/L

α 2 -Globulins

Serum

0.5–0.9 g/dL

5–9 g/L

β-Globulins

Serum

0.6–1.1 g/dL

6–11 g/L

γ-Globulins

Serum

0.7–1.7 g/dL

7–17 g/L

β 2 -Microglobulin

Serum

0.7–1.8 μg/mL

Glucose:

2-h postprandial

Plasma

< 140 mg/dL

< 7.8 mmol/L

Fasting

Plasma

70–105 mg/dL

3.9–5.8 mmol/L

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)

Blood

5–15 U/g Hb

0.32–0.97 mU/ mol Hb

γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)

Serum

8–78 U/L

Growth hormone:

After oral glucose

Plasma

< 2 ng/mL

< 2 μg/L

In response to provocative stimuli

Plasma

> 7 ng/mL

> 7 μg/L

Haptoglobin

Serum

30–200 mg/dL

300–2000 mg/L

Hematocrit:

Females

Blood

36–47%

Males

Blood

41–51%

Hemoglobin:

Females

Blood

12–16 g/dL

120–160 g/L

Males

Blood

14–17 g/dL

140–170 g/L

Hemoglobin A 1c

Blood

4.7–8.5%

Hemoglobin electrophoresis, adults:

Hb A 1

Blood

95–98%

Hb A 2

Blood

2–3%

Hb C

Blood

0%

Hb F

Blood

0.8–2.0%

Hb S

Blood

0%

Hemoglobin electrophoresis, Hb F in children:

Neonate

Blood

50–80%

1–6 mo

Blood

8%

> 6 mo

Blood

1–2%

Homocysteine:

Females

Plasma

0.40–1.89 mg/L

3–14 μmol/L

Males

Plasma

0.54–2.16 mg/L

4–16 μmol/L

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), quantitative

Serum

< 5 mIU/mL

Immunoglobulins:

IgA

Serum

70–300 mg/dL

0.7–3.0 g/L

IgD

Serum

< 8 mg/dL

< 80 mg/L

IgE

Serum

0.01–0.04 mg/dL

0.1–0.4 mg/L

IgG

Serum

640–1430 mg/dL

6.4–14.3 g/L

IgG 1

Serum

280–1020 mg/dL

2.8–10.2 g/L

IgG 2

Serum

60–790 mg/dL

0.6–7.9 g/L

IgG 3

Serum

14–240 mg/dL

0.14–2.4 g/L

IgG 4

Serum

11–330 mg/dL

0.11–3.3 g/L

IgM

Serum

20–140 mg/dL

0.2–1.4 g/L

Insulin, fasting

Serum

1.4–14 μIU/mL

10–104 pmol/L

International normalized ratio (INR):

Therapeutic range (standard intensity therapy)

Plasma

2.0–3.0

Therapeutic range in patients at higher risk (eg, patients with prosthetic heart valves)

Plasma

2.5–3.5

Therapeutic range in patients with lupus anticoagulant

Plasma

3.0–3.5

Iron

Serum

60–160 μg/dL

11–29 μmol/L

Iron-binding capacity, total (TIBC)

Serum

250–460 μg/dL

45–82 μmol/L

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)

Serum

60–160 U/L

1–1.67 μkat/L

Lactic acid, venous

Blood

6–16 mg/dL

0.67–1.8 mmol/L

Lactose tolerance test

Plasma

> 15 mg/dL increase in plasma glucose level

> 0.83 mmol/L increase in plasma glucose level

Lead

Blood

< 40 μg/dL

< 1.9 μmol/L

Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP) score

Peripheral blood smear

13–130/100/ polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte neutrophils and bands

Lipase

Serum

< 95 U/L

< 1.58 μkat/L

Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]

Serum

≤ 30 mg/dL

< 1.1 μmol/L

Luteinizing hormone (LH), females:

Follicular or luteal phase

Serum

5–22 mU/mL

5–22 U/L

Midcycle peak

Serum

30–250 mU/mL

30–250 U/L

Postmenopausal

Serum

> 30 mU/mL

> 30 U/L

Luteinizing hormone, males

Serum

3–15 mU/mL

3–15 U/L

Magnesium

Serum

1.5–2.4 mg/dL

0.62–0.99 mmol/L

Manganese

Serum

0.3–0.9 ng/mL

5.5–16.4 nmol/L

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)

Blood

28–32 pg

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

Blood

32–36 g/dL

320–360 g/L

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)

Blood

80–100 fL

Metanephrines, fractionated:

Metanephrines, free

Plasma

< 0.50 nmol/L

Normetanephrines, free

Plasma

< 0.90 nmol/L

Methemoglobin

Blood

< 1.0%

Methylmalonic acid (MMA)

Serum

150–370 nmol/L

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibodies

Serum

< 6.0 U/mL

Myoglobin:

Females

Serum

25–58 μg/L

1.4–3.5 nmol/L

Males

Serum

28–72 μg/L

1.6–4.1 nmol/L

Norepinephrine, supine

Plasma

50–440 pg/mL

0.3–2.6 nmol/L

N-Terminal propeptide of BNP (NT-proBNP)

Plasma

< 125 pg/mL

5'-Nucleotidase (5'NT)

Serum

4–11.5 U/L

Osmolality

Plasma

275–295 mOsm/kg H 2 O

275–295 mmol/ kg H 2 O

Osmotic fragility test

Blood

Increased fragility if hemolysis occurs in > 0.5% NaCl

Decreased fragility if hemolysis is incomplete in 0.3% NaCl

Oxygen partial pressure (PO 2 )

Blood

80–100 mm Hg

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Serum

10–65 pg/mL

10–65 ng/L

Parathyroid hormone–related peptide (PTHrP)

Plasma

< 2.0 pmol/L

Partial thromboplastin time, activated (aPTT)

Plasma

25–35 sec

pH

Blood

7.38–7.44

Phosphorus, inorganic

Serum

3.0–4.5 mg/dL

0.97–1.45 mmol/L

Platelet count

Blood

150–350 x 10 3 /μL

150–350 x 10 9 /L

Platelet life span, using chromium-51 ( 51 Cr)

8–12 days

Porphyrins

Plasma

≤ 1.0 μg/dL

Potassium

Serum

3.5–5 mEq/L

3.5–5 mmol/L

Prealbumin (transthyretin)

Serum

18–45 mg/dL

Progesterone:

Follicular phase

Serum

< 1 ng/mL

< 0.03 nmol/L

Luteal phase

Serum

3–30 ng/mL

0.1–0.95 nmol/L

Prolactin:

Females

Serum

< 20 μg/L

< 870 pmol/L

Males

Serum

< 15 μg/L

< 652 pmol/L

Prostate-specific antigen, total (PSA-T)

Serum

0–4 ng/mL

Prostate-specific antigen, ratio of free to total (PSA-F:PSA-T)

Serum

> 0.25

Protein C activity

Plasma

67–131%

Protein C resistance, activated ratio (APC-R)

Plasma

2.2–2.6

Protein S activity

Plasma

82–144%

Protein, total

Serum

6–7.8 g/dL

60–78 g/L

Prothrombin time (PT)

Plasma

11–13 sec

Pyruvate

Blood

0.08–0.16 mmol/L

RBC count

Blood

4.2–5.9 x 10 6 cells/μL

4.2–5.9 x 10 12 cells/L

RBC survival rate, using 51 Cr

Blood

T 1/2 = 28 days

Renin activity, plasma (PRA), upright, in males and females aged 18–39 yr:

Sodium-depleted

Plasma

2.9–24 ng/mL/h

Sodium-repleted

Plasma

0.6 (or lower)–4.3 ng/mL/h

Reticulocyte count:

Percentage

Blood

0.5–1.5%

Absolute

Blood

23–90 x 10 3 /μL

23–90 x 10 9 /L

Rheumatoid factor (RF)

Serum

< 40 U/mL

< 40 kU/L

Sodium

Serum

136–145 mEq/L

136–145 mmol/L

Testosterone, adults:

Females

Serum

20–75 ng/dL

0.7–2.6 nmol/L

Males

Serum

300–1200 ng/dL

10–42 nmol/L

Thrombin time

Plasma

18.5–24 sec

Thyroid iodine-123 ( 123 I) uptake

5–30% of administered dose at 24 h

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

Serum

0.5–5.0 μIU/mL

0.5–5.0 mIU/L

Thyroxine (T 4 ):

Free

Serum

0.9–2.4 ng/dL

12–31 pmol/L

Free index

4–11 μg/dL

Total

Serum

5–12 μg/dL

64–155 nmol/L

Transferrin

Serum

212–360 mg/dL

2.1–3.6 g/L

Transferrin saturation

Serum

20–50%

Triglycerides (desirable level)

Serum

< 250 mg/dL

< 2.82 mmol/L

Triiodothyronine (T 3 ):

Uptake

Serum

25–35%

Total

Serum

70–195 ng/dL

1.1–3.0 nmol/L

Troponin I

Plasma

< 0.1 ng/mL

< 0.1 μg/L

Troponin T

Serum

≤ 0.03 ng/mL

≤ 0.03 μg/L

Urea nitrogen (BUN)

Serum

8–20 mg/dL

2.9–7.1 mmol/L

Uric acid

Serum

2.5–8 mg/dL

0.15–0.47 mmol/L

Vitamin B 12

Serum

200–800 pg/mL

148–590 pmol/L

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid):

Leukocyte

Blood

< 20 mg/dL

< 1136 μmol/L

Total

Blood

0.4–1.5 mg/dL

23–85 μmol/L

Vitamin D:

1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol)

Serum

25–65 pg/mL

65–169 pmol/L

25-Hydroxycholecalciferol

Serum

15–80 ng/mL

37–200 nmol/L

WBC count

Blood

3.9–10.7 x 10 3 cells/μL

3.9–10.7 x 10 9 cells/L

Zinc

Serum

66–110 μg/dL

10.1–16.8 μmol/L

μkat = microkatal; pkat = picokatal.

Resources In This Article

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

  • Drug Name
    Select Trade
  • ROCALTROL
  • LEVOPHED
  • R-GENE 10
  • CRINONE
  • METOPIRONE
  • DELATESTRYL
  • MIACALCIN
  • ADRENALIN
  • ESTRADERM, ESTROGEL, VIVELLE
  • VASOSTRICT

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