Babesiosis is infection with Babesia sp. Infections can be asymptomatic or cause a malaria-like illness with fever and hemolytic anemia. Disease is most severe in asplenic patients, the elderly, and patients with AIDS. Diagnosis is by identification of Babesia in a peripheral blood smear, serologic test, or PCR. Treatment, when needed, is with azithromycin plus atovaquone or with quinine plus clindamycin.
In the US, Babesia microti is the most common cause of babesiosis. Rodents are the principal natural reservoir, and deer ticks of the family Ixodidae are the usual vectors. Larval ticks become infected while feeding on an infected rodent, then transform into nymphs that transmit the parasite to another animal or to a human. Adult ticks ordinarily feed on deer but may also transmit the parasite to humans. Babesia enter RBCs, mature, and then divide asexually. Infected erythrocytes eventually rupture and release organisms that invade other RBCs; thus, Babesia can also be transmitted by blood transfusion, possibly by organ transplantation, and congenitally.
Endemic areas in the US include the islands and the mainland bordering Nantucket Sound in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, eastern Long Island and Shelter Island in New York, coastal Connecticut, and New Jersey, as well as foci in Wisconsin and the upper Midwest. Babesia duncani has been isolated from patients in Washington and California. A currently unnamed strain designated MO-1 has been reported in patients in Missouri. Other Babesia sp transmitted by different ticks infect humans in areas of Europe. In Europe, B. divergens is the principle cause of babesiosis in patients who have had a splenectomy.
Ixodes ticks infected with Babesia are sometimes coinfected with Borrelia burgdorferi (which causes Lyme disease), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (which causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis [HGA]), or B. miyamotoi (which causes an HGA-like illness).
Symptoms and Signs
Asymptomatic infection may persist for months to years and remain subclinical throughout its course in otherwise healthy people, especially those < 40 yr.
When symptomatic, the illness usually starts after a 1- to 2-wk incubation period with malaise, fatigue, chills, fever, headache, myalgia, and arthralgia, which may last for weeks. Hepatosplenomegaly with jaundice, mild to moderately severe hemolytic anemia, mild neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia may occur.
Infection is sometimes fatal, particularly in the elderly, asplenic patients, and patients with AIDS. In such patients, babesiosis may resemble falciparum malaria, with high fever, hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinuria, jaundice, and renal failure. Splenectomy may cause previously acquired asymptomatic parasitemia to become symptomatic.
Most patients do not remember a tick bite, but they may reside in or report a history of travel to an endemic region.
Diagnosis is usually made by finding Babesia in blood smears, but differentiation from Plasmodium species can be difficult. Tetrad forms (the so-called Maltese cross formation), although not common, are unique to Babesia and helpful diagnostically. Serologic and PCR-based tests are available. Antibody detection by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) testing using B. microti antigens can be helpful in patients with low-level parasitemia but may be falsely negative in those infected with other Babesia sp.
Asymptomatic patients require no treatment, but therapy is indicated for patients with persistent high fever, rapidly increasing parasitemia, and falling Hct. The combination of atovaquone 750 mg po q 12 h and azithromycin 500 to 1000 mg po once/day for 7 to 10 days is as effective as traditional therapy with quinine plus clindamycin and has fewer adverse effects. Pediatric dosage is atovaquone 20 mg/kg po bid plus azithromycin 10 mg/kg po once, then 5 mg/kg/day for 7 to 10 days.
Alternatively, quinine 650 mg po tid for 7 days plus clindamycin 600 mg po tid or 1.2 g IV bid for 7 to 10 days can be used. Pediatric dosage is quinine 10 mg/kg po tid plus clindamycin 7 to 14 mg/kg po tid.
Exchange transfusion has been used in hypotensive patients with high parasitemia.
Standard tick precautions (see Sidebar 1: Tick Bite Prevention) should be taken by all people in endemic areas. Asplenic patients and patients with AIDS should be particularly cautious.
Last full review/revision January 2014 by Richard D. Pearson, MD
Content last modified January 2014