Biotin and Pantothenic Acid
(See also Overview of Vitamins.)
Biotin acts as a coenzyme for carboxylation reactions essential to fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Adequate intake for adults is 30 mcg/day.
Pantothenic acid is widely distributed in foods; it is an essential component of coenzyme A. Adults probably require about 5 mg/day. A beneficial role for pantothenic acid supplementation in lipid metabolism, RA, or athletic performance remains unproved.
Isolated deficiency of biotin or pantothenic acid virtually never occurs.