These infections can be caused by bacteria Overview of Bacteria Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms. They are among the earliest known life forms on earth. There are thousands of different kinds of bacteria, and they live in every conceivable... read more , viruses Overview of Viral Infections A virus is composed of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat. It requires a living cell in which to multiply. A viral infection can lead to a spectrum of symptoms from... read more , or fungi Overview of Fungal Infections Fungi are neither plants nor animals. They were once thought to be plants but are now classified as their own kingdom. Some fungi cause infections in people. Because fungal spores are often... read more .
Symptoms vary but may include vomiting, fever, and a rash.
The diagnosis is typically based on a physical examination.
Various measures, such as handwashing, can help prevent spreading infections.
Infections are treated based on the cause.
(See also Overview of Infections in Newborns Overview of Infections in Newborns Infections occur at all ages but are a great cause for concern in newborns because newborns, especially preterm ones, have an underdeveloped immune system and are more susceptible to infection... read more .)
Some infections are acquired after admission to the newborn nursery rather than from the mother in utero (in the womb) or during delivery. Sometimes it is not clear whether the source is the mother or the hospital environment. Infections acquired in the hospital are mainly problems for newborns who have to stay in the hospital for a long time, for example, preterm newborns Preterm (Premature) Newborns A preterm newborn is a baby delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. Depending on when they are born, preterm newborns have underdeveloped organs, which may not be ready to function outside of... read more and full-term newborns who have serious medical disorders.
The most common hospital-acquired infections are pneumonia Overview of Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the small air sacs of the lungs (alveoli) and the tissues around them. Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death worldwide. Often, pneumonia is the final... read more (lung infection) and blood infections (bacteremia Bacteremia Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. Bacteremia may result from ordinary activities (such as vigorous toothbrushing), dental or medical procedures, or from infections ... read more ) resulting from a catheter that has been inserted into a vein (also called an IV) to give the newborn fluids or medications.
In full-term newborns, the most frequent hospital-acquired infection is a skin infection resulting from the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus Infections Staphylococcus aureus is the most dangerous of all of the many common staphylococcal bacteria. These gram-positive, sphere-shaped (coccal) bacteria (see figure How Bacteria Shape Up)... read more . Often, infections are not noticed until newborns are at home.
In very-low-birth-weight infants, the majority of hospital-acquired infections also are caused by staphylococci. But certain other bacteria and fungi also are causes. The lower the birth weight, the higher the risk of infection, particularly in newborns who need to be on a ventilator or need IVs for a long time. The longer newborns stay in special care nurseries or neonatal intensive care units Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) Problems in newborns may develop Before birth while the fetus is growing During labor and delivery After birth About 9% of newborns need special care after birth due to prematurity, problems... read more (NICUs) and the more procedures they have done, the higher is their likelihood of infection.
Symptoms of Hospital-Acquired Infections in Newborns
Symptoms of infection in newborns tend to be nonspecific. For example, newborns may have vomiting or poor feeding, increased sleepiness or lethargy, fever or low temperature, fast breathing, rashes, diarrhea, or a swollen abdomen. Many infections acquired before birth can cause or be accompanied by various symptoms or abnormalities.
Diagnosis of Hospital-Acquired Infections in Newborns
Various other tests
Hospital-acquired infection is suspected based on a doctor's examination.
Doctors may then test blood, urine, and spinal fluid samples to determine where the infection is and which organism is causing it.
Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections in Newborns
General measures that hospital staff members use to help prevent hospital-acquired infections include the following:
Measures to reduce the spread of Staphylococcus aureus
Prevention of spread and infection in special care nurseries such as NICUs Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) Problems in newborns may develop Before birth while the fetus is growing During labor and delivery After birth About 9% of newborns need special care after birth due to prematurity, problems... read more
Monitoring for infection in the hospital
To reduce the spread of infection during a disease outbreak in the hospital, doctors may apply antibiotic ointments to the newborn's umbilical cord, nostrils, and circumcision site.
To reduce the spread of infection in special care nurseries such as NICUs, hospital staff members ensure there is sufficient space between newborns who are in incubators or warmers. They also are careful to meticulously clean and disinfect or sterilize equipment and use IVs and ventilators for as short a time as possible.
Hospital staff members, parents, and caregivers can help prevent the spread of hospital-acquired infections by always thoroughly washing their hands with soap and water or with antibacterial hand sanitizer.
While in the hospital, newborns are carefully monitored for any signs of infection.
If doctors determine an infection is spreading through the nursery, they may give certain antibiotics to newborns who are not yet infected. This preventive measure is called prophylaxis Taking antibiotics to prevent infections Antibiotics are drugs used to treat bacterial infections. They are not effective against viral infections and most other infections. Antibiotics either kill bacteria or stop them from reproducing... read more .
Hospital staff members give vaccines according to the routine schedule Childhood Vaccination Schedule Most doctors follow the vaccination schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC—see the schedule for infants and children and the schedule for older children... read more to any infant who is in the hospital at that time. Some vaccines are not given until the time of discharge.
Treatment of Hospital-Acquired Infections in Newborns
Depends on the organism
Treatment of hospital-acquired infections depends on the specific organism causing the infection.