Congenital cystic dysplasia affects one or both kidneys. Cystic dysplasia of the kidneys may be the only birth defect, or it may be part of a syndrome and occur together with other abnormalities. Abnormalities may affect other parts of the urinary tract, including the ureter, bladder, or rarely the urethra, testes, or abdominal wall muscles. (See figure Viewing the Urinary Tract Viewing the Urinary Tract .)
If enough kidney tissue is damaged, chronic kidney disease Chronic Kidney Disease Chronic kidney disease is a slowly progressive (months to years) decline in the kidneys’ ability to filter metabolic waste products from the blood. Major causes are diabetes and high blood pressure... read more can result, sometimes causing symptoms, often with slowed growth. Congenital cystic dysplasia of the kidneys is commonly discovered when routine ultrasonography Ultrasonography Ultrasonography uses high-frequency sound (ultrasound) waves to produce images of internal organs and other tissues. A device called a transducer converts electrical current into sound waves... read more is done before birth or is done during early childhood for a reason unrelated to the kidneys.
Prognosis is highly unpredictable because it may be difficult for doctors to tell how much kidney tissue is unaffected and functions normally.
Treatment is surgical correction if needed for any associated defects of the urinary tract. If chronic kidney disease progresses to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD, or end-stage kidney failure), dialysis Dialysis Dialysis is an artificial process for removing waste products and excess fluids from the body, a process that is needed when the kidneys are not functioning properly. There are a number of reasons... read more or kidney transplantation Kidney Transplantation Kidney transplantation is the removal of a healthy kidney from a living or recently deceased person and then its transfer into a person with end-stage kidney failure. (See also Overview of Transplantation... read more may be needed.
The following English-language resources may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.
American Kidney Fund (AKF): Information about kidney disease, kidney transplant, and needs-based financial assistance to help manage medical expenses
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK): General information on kidney diseases, including research discoveries, statistics, and community health and outreach programs
National Kidney Foundation (NKF): Information on everything from the basics of kidney function to access to treatment and support for people with kidney disease