People eat large amounts of food, then make themselves vomit, use laxatives, diet, fast, or vigorously exercise to compensate.
Doctors suspect the diagnosis when people are overly concerned about their weight and their weight fluctuates a lot.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (a type of antidepressant), or both may be used to treat the disorder.
As in anorexia nervosa Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by a relentless pursuit of thinness, a distorted body image, an extreme fear of obesity, and restriction of food consumption, leading to... read more , bulimia nervosa is influenced by hereditary and social factors. Also as in anorexia nervosa, most people who have bulimia nervosa are young women who are deeply concerned about body shape and weight.
Bulimia nervosa affects mainly adolescents and young adults. In a given year, about 1 in 100 young females have bulimia nervosa. The disorder is much less common among males.
People with bulimia nervosa have repeated episodes of binge eating. That is, they eat much larger amounts of food than most people would eat in a similar time under similar circumstances. Circumstances and culture are important because the amount considered excessive for a normal meal may differ from the amount considered excessive for a holiday meal.
Emotional stress often triggers the binges, which are usually done in secret. Binge eating, which is accompanied by a feeling of a loss of control, usually includes eating when not hungry and eating to the point of physical discomfort.
People tend to consume sweet, high-fat foods, such as ice cream and cake. The amount of food consumed varies and sometimes involves thousands of calories. Binges may occur as often as several times a day.
In an attempt to counteract the effects of the excess food, people use various means to compensate:
Some also take diuretics to treat perceived bloating.
Unlike in anorexia nervosa, the body weight of people with bulimia nervosa tends to fluctuate around normal. Only a few are overweight or obese.
Unlike in binge-eating disorder Binge-Eating Disorder Binge-eating disorder is an eating disorder characterized by the repeated consumption of unusually large amounts of food (binge eating) with a feeling of loss of control during and after the... read more , people with bulimia nervosa try to compensate for excessive eating by purging or other means.
Self-induced vomiting can erode tooth enamel, enlarge the salivary glands in the cheeks (parotid glands), and inflame the esophagus. Vomiting can lower potassium levels in the blood, causing abnormal heart rhythms. Sudden death can result from an abnormal heart rhythm in people who repeatedly take large quantities of ipecac to induce vomiting. Rarely, during a binge or purge, the stomach ruptures or the esophagus tears, leading to life-threatening complications.
People with bulimia nervosa are preoccupied with and judge themselves based on their weight and body shape. Their self-esteem is largely based on their body weight and shape.
Compared with people who have anorexia nervosa, those who have bulimia nervosa tend to be more aware of their behavior and to feel remorseful or guilty about it. They are more likely to admit their concerns to a doctor or other confidant. Generally, people with bulimia nervosa are more outgoing. They also are more prone to impulsive behavior, drug or alcohol abuse Overview of Substance-Related Disorders Drugs are an integral part of everyday life for many people, whether the drugs are used for legitimate medical purposes or recreationally (see table Drugs with Medical and Recreational Uses)... read more , and depression Depression A short discussion of prolonged grief disorder. Depression is a feeling of sadness and/or a decreased interest or pleasure in activities that becomes a disorder when it is intense enough to... read more . They are anxious about their weight and about participation in social activities.
Doctors diagnose bulimia nervosa when people, particularly young women, do the following:
Report binge eating at least once a week for 3 months or more
Feel out of control during and after the binge
Compensate for the binges by purging (for example, by making themselves vomit or using laxatives), by fasting, or by exercising excessively
Express marked concern about weight gain and base their self-image largely on weight and body shape
Doctors also check for other clues that support the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa:
Wide fluctuations in weight, especially if there are clues suggesting excessive laxative use (such as diarrhea and abdominal cramps)
Swollen salivary glands in the cheeks
Scars on the knuckles from using the fingers to induce vomiting
Erosion of tooth enamel from stomach acid
A low level of potassium detected by a blood test
Treatment of bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, and drug therapy.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is usually used. Goals are
People meet with a therapist—individually or in a group—once or twice a week over a period of 4 to 5 months, for a total of about 16 to 20 sessions. Cognitive-behavioral therapy eliminates binge eating and purging in about 30 to 50% of people with bulimia. Many others also improve, but others drop out of therapy or do not respond. Those who improve usually continue to do well.
Interpersonal psychotherapy is an alternative when cognitive-behavioral therapy is unavailable. It helps people identify and change interpersonal problems that may be contributing to the eating disorder. This therapy does not involve telling people how to change, does not interpret their behavior, and does not deal directly with eating disorder.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Agomelatine, a new type of antidepressant, is a possible treatment for major depressive episodes. Several types of drugs can be used to treat depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors... read more , a type of antidepressant, can reduce the frequency of binge eating and vomiting, but how effective these drugs are in the long term is not clear. These drugs also effectively treat anxiety Overview of Anxiety Disorders Anxiety is a feeling of nervousness, worry, or unease that is a normal human experience. It is also present in a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder,... read more and depression Depression A short discussion of prolonged grief disorder. Depression is a feeling of sadness and/or a decreased interest or pleasure in activities that becomes a disorder when it is intense enough to... read more , which are common among people with bulimia nervosa.
The following are some English-language resources that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of these resources.
National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA): Large nonprofit organization that provides access to online screening tools, a helpline, forums, and a variety of support groups (some virtual)
National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD): Provides access to curricula and training for medical and health care professionals, as well as peer-to-peer support groups, self-help, and other services
National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH), Eating Disorders: A clearinghouse for information on eating disorders, including statistics on prevalence, brochures and fact sheets (also available in Spanish), education and awareness campaigns, and information on relevant clinical trials