Merck Manual

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Gingival Hyperplasia


James T. Ubertalli

, DMD, Hingham, MA

Reviewed/Revised May 2022 | Modified Sep 2022
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Hyperplasia of gingival tissues without inflammation may occur in response to various drugs.

Drugs that particularly cause gingival hyperplasia include the following:

  • Phenytoin

  • Cyclosporine

  • Nifedipine and other calcium channel blockers

Hyperplasia is characterized by diffuse, relatively avascular smooth or nodular enlargement of the gingiva, which may almost cover some teeth. The hypertrophied tissue can often be excised. If possible, substitutions are made for the offending drugs. Scrupulous oral hygiene may minimize recurrence.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Drug Name Select Trade
Dilantin, Dilantin Infatabs, Dilantin-125, Phenytek
Cequa, Gengraf , Neoral, Restasis, Sandimmune, SangCya, Verkazia
Adalat, Adalat CC, Afeditab CR, Nifediac CC, Nifedical XL, Procardia, Procardia XL
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NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: View Consumer Version
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