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Gingival Hyperplasia

By

James T. Ubertalli

, DMD, Hingham, MA

Last full review/revision Jul 2020| Content last modified Jul 2020
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Hyperplasia of gingival tissues without inflammation may occur in response to various drugs.

Drugs that particularly cause gingival hyperplasia include the following:

  • Phenytoin

  • Cyclosporine

  • Nifedipine and other calcium channel blockers

Hyperplasia is characterized by diffuse, relatively avascular smooth or nodular enlargement of the gingiva, which may almost cover some teeth. The hypertrophied tissue can often be excised. If possible, substitutions are made for the offending drugs. Scrupulous oral hygiene may minimize recurrence.

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A 12-year-old girl is brought to the office by her grandmother because she has had pain in her mouth for the past week. The patient appears to be drooling. Physical examination shows a smooth red tongue. Tenderness is noted on palpation of the oral mucosa. Based on these findings, this patient most likely has a deficiency of which of the following? 
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