Merck Manual

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Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions


James T. Ubertalli

, DMD, Hingham, MA

Last review/revision May 2022 | Modified Sep 2022
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Peri-implant diseases and conditions relate to soft- and hard-tissue deficiencies, which help predict the success of dental implants in the long term. Clinical abnormalities of peri-implant diseases are erythema, bleeding on probing, swelling, and suppuration.

  • Peri-implant mucositis

  • Peri-implantitis

  • Peri-implant deficiencies of soft and/or hard tissues.

Peri-implant mucositis

Clinical signs of peri-implant mucositis include bleeding on probing, swelling, and inflammation associated with plaque. The condition may be reversed by measures to eliminate the plaque.


Peri-implantitis is a plaque-associated pathologic condition characterized by inflammation and subsequent progressive loss of supporting bone. It is associated with poor plaque control and occurs in patients with a history of severe periodontitis. Treatment is as with treatment of periodontitis Treatment Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory oral disease that progressively destroys the tooth-supporting apparatus. It usually manifests as a worsening of gingivitis and then, if untreated, with... read more Treatment .

Peri-implant deficiencies of soft and/or hard tissues

Normal healing following tooth loss may result in deficiencies of the jaw bone or lack of dense keratinized gingiva. These abnormalities can be corrected by grafting the hard or soft tissues.

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NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: View Consumer Version
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