The pituitary gland controls the functions of peripheral endocrine glands (see figure ). Pituitary structure and function and relationships between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are discussed in Overview of the Endocrine System Overview of the Endocrine System The endocrine system coordinates functioning between different organs through hormones, which are chemicals released into the bloodstream from specific types of cells within endocrine (ductless)... read more .
The pituitary and its target organs
Specific pituitary disorders include
Selective pituitary hormone deficiencies Selective Pituitary Hormone Deficiencies Selective deficiencies of pituitary hormones may represent an early stage in the development of more generalized hypopituitarism. Patients must be observed for signs of other pituitary hormone... read more , including argininevasopressin deficiency (central diabetes insipidus ArginineVasopressin Deficiency (Central Diabetes Insipidus) Arginine vasopressin deficiency (central diabetes insipidus) results from a deficiency of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone [ADH]) due to a hypothalamic-pituitary disorder. Polyuria and polydipsia... read more )
Pituitary hormone excesses, including gigantism Gigantism and Acromegaly Gigantism and acromegaly are syndromes of excessive secretion of growth hormone (hypersomatotropism) that are nearly always due to a pituitary adenoma. Before closure of the epiphyses, the result... read more , acromegaly Gigantism and Acromegaly Gigantism and acromegaly are syndromes of excessive secretion of growth hormone (hypersomatotropism) that are nearly always due to a pituitary adenoma. Before closure of the epiphyses, the result... read more , galactorrhea Prolactinoma Prolactinomas are noncancerous tumors made up from lactotrophs in the pituitary gland. The most common symptom of a prolactinoma is galactorrhea. Diagnosis is by measurement of prolactin levels... read more , syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion (SIADH) The syndrome of inappropriate ADH (vasopressin) secretion is defined as less than maximally dilute urine in the presence of serum hypo-osmolality, in patients with normal adrenal, thyroid, renal... read more , and Cushing disease Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is a constellation of clinical abnormalities caused by chronic high blood levels of cortisol or related corticosteroids. Cushing disease is Cushing syndrome that results from... read more