Gynecologic cancers often involve the uterus Endometrial Cancer Endometrial cancer is usually endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Typically, it manifests as postmenopausal uterine bleeding. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Staging is surgical. Treatment requires hysterectomy... read more , ovaries Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Cancer Ovarian cancer is often fatal because it is usually advanced when diagnosed. The most common histology—high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer—is considered as a single clinical entity along... read more , cervix Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is usually a squamous cell carcinoma; less often, it is an adenocarcinoma. The cause of most cervical cancers is human papillomavirus infection. Cervical neoplasia is often asymptomatic... read more , vulva Vulvar Cancer Vulvar cancer is usually a squamous cell cancer, most often occurring in older women. It usually manifests as a palpable lesion. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Treatment typically includes excision... read more , vagina Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is usually a squamous cell carcinoma, most often occurring in women > 60. The most common symptom is abnormal vaginal bleeding. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Treatment for many small... read more , fallopian tubes Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Cancer Ovarian cancer is often fatal because it is usually advanced when diagnosed. The most common histology—high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer—is considered as a single clinical entity along... read more , or the peritoneum. Gestational trophoblastic disease Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Gestational trophoblastic disease is proliferation of trophoblastic tissue in pregnant or recently pregnant women. Manifestations may include excessive uterine enlargement, vomiting, vaginal... read more is a group of proliferative disorders originating from trophoblastic tissue.
The most common gynecologic cancer in the US is endometrial cancer, followed by ovarian cancer. Cervical cancer is common in low-resource areas and less common in high-resource countries because screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test and with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is widely available and effective.
Many gynecologic cancers manifest as pelvic masses Female Pelvic Mass The female pelvic cavity contains the upper female reproductive tract (cervix, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes); the adnexa refers to the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding connective... read more or abnormal vaginal bleeding Vaginal Bleeding Abnormal vaginal or uterine bleeding includes Menses that are excessive in frequency (amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea), volume, or duration (menorrhagia, or heavy menstrual bleeding)... read more .