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Introduction to Gynecologic Tumors

By

Pedro T. Ramirez

, MD, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center;


Gloria Salvo

, MD, MD Anderson Cancer Center

Last full review/revision Sep 2020| Content last modified Sep 2020
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Gynecologic cancers often involve the uterus Endometrial Cancer Endometrial cancer is usually endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Typically, postmenopausal vaginal bleeding occurs. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Staging is surgical. Treatment requires hysterectomy, bilateral... read more , ovaries Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer is often fatal because it is usually advanced when diagnosed. Symptoms are usually absent in early stages and nonspecific in advanced stages. Evaluation usually includes ultrasonography... read more , cervix Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is usually a squamous cell carcinoma caused by human papillomavirus infection; less often, it is an adenocarcinoma. Cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic; the first symptom of early... read more Cervical Cancer , vulva Vulvar Cancer Vulvar cancer is usually a squamous cell skin cancer, most often occurring in older women. It usually manifests as a palpable lesion. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Treatment typically includes excision... read more Vulvar Cancer , vagina Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is usually a squamous cell carcinoma, most often occurring in women > 60. The most common symptom is abnormal vaginal bleeding. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Treatment for many small... read more , fallopian tubes Fallopian Tube Cancer Fallopian tube cancer is usually adenocarcinoma, manifesting as an adnexal mass or with vague symptoms. Diagnosis, staging, and primary treatment are surgical. High-grade serous epithelial ovarian... read more , or the peritoneum. The most common gynecologic cancer in the US is endometrial cancer, followed by ovarian cancer. Cervical cancer is not very common in developed countries because screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test and with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing are widely available and effective.

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Bacterial vaginosis is vaginitis due to an alteration in vaginal flora in which lactobacilli decrease and anaerobic pathogens overgrow. Which of the following is least likely to contribute to this condition?
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