Gynecologic cancers involve the uterus Endometrial Cancer Endometrial cancer is usually endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Typically, it manifests as postmenopausal uterine bleeding. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Staging is surgical. Treatment requires hysterectomy... read more , ovaries Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Cancer Ovarian cancer is often fatal because it is usually advanced when diagnosed. The most common histology—high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer—is considered as a single clinical entity along... read more , cervix Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is usually squamous cell carcinoma; adenocarcinoma is less common. The cause of most cervical cancers is human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cervical neoplasia is often asymptomatic... read more , vulva Vulvar Cancer Vulvar cancer is usually a squamous cell cancer, most often occurring in older women. It usually manifests as a visible or palpable lesion. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Treatment typically includes... read more , vagina Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is usually a squamous cell carcinoma, most often occurring in women > 60. The most common symptom is abnormal vaginal bleeding. Diagnosis is by biopsy. Treatment for many small... read more , fallopian tubes Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Cancer Ovarian cancer is often fatal because it is usually advanced when diagnosed. The most common histology—high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer—is considered as a single clinical entity along... read more , or peritoneum. Gestational trophoblastic disease Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Gestational trophoblastic disease is proliferation of trophoblastic tissue in pregnant or recently pregnant women. Manifestations may include excessive uterine enlargement, vomiting, vaginal... read more is a group of proliferative disorders originating from trophoblastic tissue in the uterus.
The most common gynecologic cancer in the United States is endometrial cancer, followed by ovarian cancer. Cervical cancer is common in low-resource countries; it is less common in high-resource countries where screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test, human papillomavirus (HPV) testing Screening Cervical cancer is a common gynecologic malignancy and a major cause of cancer deaths in low- and middle-resource countries ( 1, 2). Effective screening and prevention methods are available... read more , and HPV vaccination Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease. HPV can cause skin warts, genital warts, or certain cancers, depending on the type of HPV. Vaccines are... read more are widely available.
Many gynecologic cancers present as a pelvic mass Female Pelvic Mass The female pelvic cavity contains the upper female reproductive tract (cervix, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes); the adnexa refers to the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding connective... read more or abnormal vaginal bleeding Vaginal Bleeding Abnormal vaginal or uterine bleeding includes Menses that are excessive in frequency (amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, polymenorrhea), volume, or duration (menorrhagia, or heavy menstrual bleeding)... read more .