Pelvic organ prolapse results from laxities (similar to hernias) in the ligaments, fascia, and muscles supporting the pelvic organs (pelvic floor—see figure Pelvic organ prolapse). The prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse is difficult to ascertain, and treatment is based on symptoms.
Common contributing factors include
Less common factors include congenital malformations, increased abdominal pressure (eg, due to ascites, abdominal tumors, or chronic respiratory disorders), sacral nerve disorders, and connective tissue disorders.
Pelvic organ prolapse affects various sites and includes
Prolapse of the vaginal wall allows surrounding organs to protrude into the vaginal space; commonly used terms include cystoceles, urethroceles, enteroceles, and rectoceles, depending on the site. Procidentia is collapse of the anterior and posterior vaginal walls and apical prolapse. Usually, prolapse occurs in multiple sites.