(See also Overview of Biliary Function Overview of Biliary Function The liver produces about 500 to 600 mL of bile each day. Bile is isosmotic with plasma and consists primarily of water and electrolytes but also organic compounds: bile salts, phospholipids... read more .)
Chronic cholecystitis almost always results from gallstones and prior episodes of acute cholecystitis Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that develops over hours, usually because a gallstone obstructs the cystic duct. Symptoms include right upper quadrant pain and tenderness... read more (even if mild). Damage ranges from a modest infiltrate of chronic inflammatory cells to a fibrotic, shrunken gallbladder. Extensive calcification due to fibrosis is called porcelain gallbladder.
Symptoms and Signs of Chronic Cholecystitis
Gallstones intermittently obstruct the cystic duct and so cause recurrent biliary colic. Such episodes of pain are not necessarily accompanied by overt gallbladder inflammation; the extent of inflammation does not correlate with the intensity or frequency of biliary colic. Upper abdominal tenderness may be present, but usually fever is not. Fever suggests acute cholecystitis. Once episodes begin, they are likely to recur.
Diagnosis of Chronic Cholecystitis
Chronic cholecystitis is suspected in patients with recurrent biliary colic plus gallstones. Ultrasonography or another imaging test usually shows gallstones and sometimes a shrunken, fibrotic gallbladder. The diagnosis is made in patients with a history of recurrent biliary colic and ultrasonographic evidence of gallstones. Cholescintigraphy may show nonvisualization of the gallbladder but is less accurate.
Treatment of Chronic Cholecystitis
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy Surgery Cholelithiasis is the presence of one or more calculi (gallstones) in the gallbladder. In developed countries, about 10% of adults and 20% of people > 65 years have gallstones. Gallstones... read more is indicated to prevent symptom recurrence and further biliary complications. This procedure is particularly appropriate for the porcelain gallbladder associated with gallbladder carcinoma Tumors of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts Gallbladder and bile duct tumors can cause extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Symptoms may be absent but often are constitutional or reflect biliary obstruction. Diagnosis is based on ultrasonography... read more .