Merck Manual

Please confirm that you are a health care professional

honeypot link

Tibialis Posterior Tendinosis and Tibialis Posterior Tenosynovitis

(Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction)

By

Kendrick Alan Whitney

, DPM, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine

Last full review/revision Oct 2021| Content last modified Nov 2021
Click here for Patient Education
Topic Resources

Tibialis posterior tendinosis, which is degeneration of the tibialis posterior tendon, and tibialis posterior tenosynovitis are the most common causes of pain behind the medial malleolus.

The posterior tibial tendon lies immediately behind the medial malleolus. Degeneration results from long-standing biomechanical problems, such as excessive pronation (often in obese people) or chronic tenosynovitis.

Symptoms and Signs

Early on, patients experience occasional pain behind the medial malleolus. Over time, the pain becomes severe, with painful swelling behind the medial malleolus. Normal standing, walking, and standing on the toes become difficult. If the tendon ruptures (eg, with chronic tendinosis), the foot may acutely flatten (arch collapse) and pain may extend into the sole.

In tenosynovitis, pain is typically more acute and the tendon may feel thick and swollen as it courses around the medial malleolus.

Diagnosis

  • MRI

Tibialis posterior tendinosis and tenosynovitis are diagnosed clinically. Palpation of the tendon with the foot in an inverted plantar flexed position with applied resistance is usually painful. Standing on the toes is usually painful and may not be possible if the tendon is ruptured or severely dysfunctional. Pain and swelling with tenderness of the tibialis posterior tendon behind the medial malleolus is suggestive of tenosynovitis. Unilateral arch collapse with medial ankle bulging and forefoot abduction (too many toes sign) is particularly suggestive of advanced tendon pathology and warrants testing for tendon rupture.

MRI or ultrasonography can confirm a fluid collection around the tendon (indicating tenosynovitis) or the extent of chronic degradation or tearing to the tendon with associated tendinosis.

Treatment

  • Orthotics and braces or surgery

Complete rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon requires surgery if normal function is the goal. Surgery is especially important in young active patients with acute tears. Conservative therapy consists of mechanically off-loading the tendon by using custom-molded ankle braces or orthotics modified with a deepened heel cup and appropriate medial wedging or posting. Corticosteroid injections exacerbate the degenerative process (see Considerations for using corticosteroid injections Considerations for Using Corticosteroid Injections Most foot problems result from anatomic disorders or abnormal function of articular or extra-articular structures (see figure Bones of the foot). Less commonly, foot problems reflect a systemic... read more ).

For tenosynovitis, rest and aggressive anti-inflammatory therapy are warranted.

Click here for Patient Education
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: Click here for the Consumer Version
Professionals also read
Test your knowledge
Metastatic Bone Tumors
Any cancer can metastasize to bone, but metastases from carcinomas are the most common. Of these carcinomas, which of the following is most likely to metastasize to bone?
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID

Also of Interest

Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
Download the Manuals App iOS ANDROID
TOP