Atrioventricular (AV) septal defect accounts for about 5% of congenital heart anomalies. In the past, this anomaly has been called by different names, such as AV canal defect or endocardial cushion defect. "AV septal defect" has generally been accepted as the preferred designation because the AV septum (septal structure separating the left ventricle from the right atrium) is absent in all forms of this malformation.
An AV septal defect may be
The majority of patients with the complete form have Down syndrome. AV septal defect is also common among patients with asplenia or polysplenia (heterotaxy) syndromes.
A complete atrioventricular septal defect (see figure Atrioventricular septal defect) consists of a large ostium primum atrial septal defect (ASD) in the anteroinferior aspect of the septum, a nonrestrictive inlet ventricular septal defect, and a common AV valve orifice. This defect is also called a complete common AV canal defect. A left-to-right shunt occurs at the atrial and ventricular levels and is often large; AV valve regurgitation may be significant, sometimes causing a direct left ventricle-to-right atrial shunt. These abnormalities result in enlargement of all 4 cardiac chambers. Hemodynamic findings are similar to those of a large ventricular septal defect (VSD).
If a complete AV septal defect is unrepaired, over time, the increase in pulmonary blood flow, pulmonary artery pressure, and pulmonary vascular resistance may lead to reversal of shunt direction with cyanosis and Eisenmenger syndrome.
Atrioventricular septal defect (complete form)
A transitional atrioventricular septal defect consists of an ostium primum atrial septal defect; a restrictive inlet ventricular septal defect, which may be small or moderate in size; and a common AV valve, which may or may not be partitioned into a left and right orifice. This defect is also called transitional AV canal defect. The shunt at the atrial level is usually large. The shunt at the ventricular level is smaller than in complete AV septal defect, and right ventricular pressure is lower than left ventricular pressure. The hemodynamics depend largely on the size of the VSD and whether there is significant AV valve regurgitation.
A partial AV septal defect consists of an ostium primum atrial septal defect and partitioning of the common AV valve into 2 separate AV orifices, resulting in a so-called cleft in the mitral valve (left AV orifice). The ventricular septum is intact. Hemodynamic abnormalities are similar to those of ostium secundum ASD (eg, left-to-right shunt at the atrial level, enlarged right heart chambers, increased pulmonary blood flow) with the additional finding of variable degrees of AV valve regurgitation.
Complete atrioventricular septal defect with a large left-to-right shunt causes signs of heart failure (eg, tachypnea, dyspnea during feeding, poor weight gain, diaphoresis) by age 4 to 6 weeks. Pulmonary vascular obstructive disease (Eisenmenger syndrome) is usually a late complication but may occur earlier, especially in children with Down syndrome.
Partial AV septal defects do not usually cause symptoms during childhood if left AV valve regurgitation is mild or absent. However, symptoms (eg, exercise intolerance, fatigue, palpitations) may develop during adolescence or early adulthood. Infants with moderate or severe left AV valve regurgitation often have signs of heart failure. Patients with transitional AV septal defects may have signs of heart failure if the ventricular septal defect is moderately restrictive with high flow or may be asymptomatic if the ventricular septal defect is highly restrictive (small).
Physical examination in children with complete AV septal defects shows an active precordium due to volume and pressure overload of the right ventricle; a single, loud 2nd heart sound (S2) due to pulmonary hypertension; a grade 2 to 3/6 systolic murmur; and sometimes a diastolic murmur at the apex and low left sternal border (see table Heart Murmur Intensity). In patients with persistent elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, especially those with Down syndrome, there may be no murmur, but a loud single S2 will be present.
Most children with a partial defect have examination findings similar to patients with a secundum ASD, wide splitting of the S2 and a midsystolic (eg, ejection systolic) murmur audible at the upper left sternal border. A mid-diastolic murmur may be present at the lower left sternal border when the atrial shunt is large. A cleft in the left AV valve results in a blowing apical systolic murmur of mitral regurgitation.
Diagnosis of atrioventricular septal defects is suggested by clinical examination, supported by chest x-ray and ECG, and established by 2-dimensional echocardiography with color flow and Doppler studies.
Chest x-ray shows cardiomegaly with right atrial enlargement, biventricular enlargement, a prominent main pulmonary artery segment, and increased pulmonary vascular markings.
ECG shows a superiorly directed QRS axis (eg, left axis deviation or northwest axis), frequent 1st-degree AV block, left or right ventricular hypertrophy or both, and occasional right atrial enlargement and right bundle branch block.
Two-dimensional echocardiography with color flow and Doppler studies establishes the diagnosis and can provide important anatomic and hemodynamic information. Cardiac catheterization is not usually necessary unless hemodynamics must be further characterized before surgical repair (for example, to assess pulmonary vascular resistance in a patient presenting at an older age).
Complete atrioventricular septal defect should be repaired by age 2 to 4 months because most infants have heart failure and failure to thrive. Even if infants are growing well without significant symptoms, repair should be done before 6 months to prevent development of pulmonary vascular disease, especially in infants with Down syndrome.
In patients with 2 adequately sized ventricles and no additional defects, the large central defect (combination of the primum ASD and inlet VSD) is closed and the common AV valve is reconstructed into 2 separate valves. Surgical mortality rate was 5 to 10% in older series but more recently was as low as 3 to 4%. Surgical complications include complete heart block (3%), residual ventricular septal defect, and/or left AV valve regurgitation. Less common residual abnormalities include right AV valve regurgitation, left or right AV valve stenosis, or subaortic stenosis.
Pulmonary artery banding may be used as a palliative procedure to delay the timing of open heart repair, particularly in premature infants or those with associated abnormalities that make complete repair at an early age or low body weight higher risk.
For asymptomatic patients with a partial defect, elective surgery is done at age 1 to 3 years. Surgical mortality rate should be very low.
The subset of patients with unbalanced AV septal defect, associated with either a hypoplastic right ventricle or hypoplastic left ventricle, generally are not amenable to a 2-ventricle repair and require operative staging toward a single ventricle circulation, ultimately with a Fontan procedure.
For patients with large shunts and heart failure, diuretics, digoxin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may help to manage symptoms before surgery.
Endocarditis prophylaxis is not needed preoperatively and is required only for the first 6 months after repair or if there is a residual defect adjacent to a surgical patch.
An atrioventricular (AV) septal defect may be complete, transitional, or partial; the majority of patients with the complete form have Down syndrome.
A complete AV septal defect involves a large ostium primum atrial septal defect (ASD), a ventricular septal defect (VSD), and a common AV valve (often with significant regurgitation), all resulting in a large left-to-right shunt at both atrial and ventricular levels and enlargement of all 4 cardiac chambers.
A partial AV septal defect also involves an ASD, but the common AV valve is partitioned into 2 separate AV orifices and there is no VSD, resulting in enlargement of the right heart chambers because of a large atrial shunt but no ventricular shunt.
A transitional AV septal defect involves an ostium primum ASD, a common AV valve, and a small- or moderate-size VSD.
Complete AV septal defect with a large left-to-right shunt causes signs of heart failure by age 4 to 6 weeks.
Symptoms in partial AV septal defects vary with the degree of mitral regurgitation; if mild or absent, symptoms may develop during adolescence or early adulthood, but infants with moderate or severe mitral regurgitation often have manifestations of heart failure.
Symptoms in transitional AV septal defect fall on a spectrum, depending on the size of the VSD.
Defects are repaired surgically between age 2 to 4 months or 1 to 3 years, depending on the specific defect and severity of symptoms.
The following are some English-language resources that may be useful. Please note that The Manual is not responsible for the content of these resources.
American Heart Association: Common Heart Defects: Provides overview of common congenital heart defects for parents and caregivers
American Heart Association: Infective Endocarditis: Provides an overview of infective endocarditis, including summarizing prophylactic antibiotic use, for patients and caregivers
Drugs Mentioned In This Article
|Drug Name||Select Trade|