Congenital anatomic anomalies of the genitourinary tract are more common than those of any other organ system.
Urinary tract anomalies predispose patients to many complications, including urinary tract infection Introduction to Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can be divided into upper tract infections, which involve the kidneys (pyelonephritis), and lower tract infections, which involve the bladder (cystitis), urethra... read more , obstruction Obstructive Uropathy Obstructive uropathy is structural or functional hindrance of normal urine flow, sometimes leading to renal dysfunction (obstructive nephropathy). Symptoms, less likely in chronic obstruction... read more , stasis, calculus formation Urinary Calculi Urinary calculi are solid particles in the urinary system. They may cause pain, nausea, vomiting, hematuria, and, possibly, chills and fever due to secondary infection. Diagnosis is based on... read more , and impaired renal function. Congenital urinary tract anomalies discussed here are
Genital anomalies may cause voiding or sexual dysfunction, impaired fertility, psychosocial difficulties, or a combination. Congenital genital anomalies discussed here are
Genitourinary anomalies frequently require surgical reconstruction.
Many anomalies are diagnosed in utero via routine prenatal ultrasonography. Some congenital renal anomalies (eg, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a hereditary disorder of renal cyst formation causing gradual enlargement of both kidneys, sometimes with progression to renal failure. Almost all forms are... read more , medullary sponge kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Medullary sponge kidney is formation of diffuse, bilateral medullary cysts caused by abnormalities in pericalyceal terminal collecting ducts. (See also Overview of Cystic Kidney Disease.) The... read more , hereditary nephritis Alport Syndrome Alport syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by nephritic syndrome (ie, hematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, eventual renal insufficiency) often with sensorineural... read more ) typically do not manifest until adulthood.