The cause of most childhood central nervous system tumors is unknown, but two established risk factors are ionizing radiation (eg, high-dose cranial irradiation) and specific genetic syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis refers to several related disorders that have overlapping clinical manifestations but that are now understood to have distinct genetic causes. It causes various types of benign... read more ).
The most common central nervous system tumors in children are (in order)
Symptoms and Signs of Brain Tumors in Children
Increased intracranial pressure is the cause of the most common manifestations, which include
Nausea and vomiting
Changes in behavior
Gait and balance disorders
Diagnosis of Brain Tumors in Children
MRI is the imaging test of choice because it provides more detailed images of parenchymal tumors and can detect tumors within the posterior fossa, subarachnoid spaces, and the arachnoid and pia mater. CT may be done but is less sensitive and less specific.
Biopsy may be done to confirm the diagnosis and to determine tumor type and grade.
Once the diagnosis is made, staging, grading, and risk assessment are determined. Staging includes an MRI of the entire spine, a lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid cytology, and a postoperative MRI to assess for any residual tumor. The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a commonly used grading system that includes molecular and histologic information to further classify central nervous system tumors. Risk assessment is based on age, degree of residual tumor, and evidence of spread of disease.
Treatment of Brain Tumors in Children
Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination
After tumor removal, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both are usually required.
Entry into a clinical trial, if available, should be considered for all children with a brain tumor. Optimal treatment requires a multidisciplinary team of pediatric oncologists, pediatric neuro-oncologists, pediatric neurosurgeons, neuropathologists, neuroradiologists, and radiation oncologists who have experience treating brain tumors in children. Because radiation therapy for brain tumors is technically demanding, children should be sent to centers that have experience in this area if possible.
The following is an English-language resource that may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
World Health Organization: The 2016 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System