Superficial venous thrombosis in the upper extremity most commonly results from IV infusions or catheterization; varicose veins seem to be the main risk factor for the lower extremity, especially among women. Superficial venous thrombi rarely cause serious complications and rarely become emboli.
Typically, patients present with pain, tenderness, or an indurated cord along a palpable superficial vein. The overlying skin is usually warm and erythematous.
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Diagnosis is based on history and physical examination. Patients with superficial venous thrombosis above the knee have an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT) Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is clotting of blood in a deep vein of an extremity (usually calf or thigh) or the pelvis. DVT is the primary cause of pulmonary embolism. DVT results from conditions... read more (DVT) and should probably have ultrasonography.
Treatment of Superficial Venous Thrombosis
Warm compresses and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Treatment of superficial venous thrombosis traditionally involves warm compresses and NSAIDs.
In patients with extensive superficial venous thrombosis, anticoagulation (eg, with low molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux) is often beneficial. The optimal regimen and duration are unknown, but most experts recommend treating for about 1 month using either low molecular weight heparin (eg, enoxaparin 40 mg subcutaneously once a day) or fondaparinux (2.5 mg subcutaneously once a day).