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Hidradenitis Suppurativa


Jonette E. Keri

, MD, PhD, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine

Reviewed/Revised Feb 2022 | Modified Sep 2022
Topic Resources

Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, scarring, acnelike inflammatory process that occurs in the axillae, groin, and around the nipples and anus. Diagnosis is by examination. Treatment depends on stage.

Hidradenitis suppurativa is currently thought to be a chronic inflammatory condition of the hair follicle and associated structures. Follicular inflammation and subsequent occlusion leads to rupture of the follicle and development of abscesses, sinus tracts, and scarring.

Swollen, tender masses resembling cutaneous abscesses develop. These lesions are often sterile. Pain, fluctuance, discharge, and sinus tract formation are characteristic in chronic cases. In chronic cases, bacterial infection may occur in deep abscesses and sinus tracts. In chronic axillary cases, coalescence of inflamed nodules causes palpable cordlike fibrotic bands. The condition may become disabling because of pain and foul odor.

Diagnosis of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

  • Clinical evaluation

Diagnosis of hidradenitis suppurativa is by examination. Cultures should be taken from deep abscesses and sinus tracts in patients who have chronic disease, but often no pathogens will be found. The Hurley staging system describes the severity of disease:

  • Stage I: Abscess formation, single or multiple, without sinus tracts or scarring

  • Stage II: Single or multiple, widely separated, recurrent abscesses with sinus tract formation or scarring

  • Stage III: Diffuse or near diffuse involvement or multiple interconnected sinus tracts and abscesses across the entire area

Treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa

  • Stage I: Topical clindamycin, intralesional corticosteroids, and oral antibiotics

  • Stage II: Longer courses of oral antibiotics and sometimes drainage, unroofing, or punch debridement

  • Stage III: Infliximab or adalimumab and often wide surgical excision and repair or grafting

Hidradenitis suppurative treatment goals are to prevent new lesions, reduce inflammation, and remove sinus tracts.

For Hurley stage I disease, typical treatment includes topical 1% clindamycin solution 2 times a day, topical resorcinol 15% cream once a day, oral zinc gluconate (90 mg once a day), intralesional corticosteroids (eg, 0.1 to 0.5 mL of a 5 to 10 mg/mL solution of triamcinolone acetonide once a month), and short (eg, 7- to 10-day) courses of oral antibiotics. Tetracycline (500 mg 2 times a day), doxycycline (100 to 200 mg once a day), minocycline (100 mg once a day), or erythromycin (250 to 500 mg 4 times a day) are used until the lesions resolve. A typical regimen could include one topical treatment (eg, based on the patient's skin sensitivity) and an oral antibiotic; however, all treatments can be used in combination or alone. The skin is washed with benzoyl peroxide.

For Hurley stage II disease, treatment is with a longer (eg, 2- to 3-month) course of the same oral antibiotics used to treat stage I disease; if response is incomplete, clindamycin 300 mg orally 2 times a day and/or rifampin 600 mg orally once a day may be added to the regimen. Adding antiandrogen therapy (eg, with oral estrogen or combination oral contraceptives, spironolactone, cyproterone acetate [not available in the US], finasteride, or combinations) may be helpful in women. Incision and drainage may reduce the pain of an abscess but are insufficient for disease control (unlike in common cutaneous abscesses). For acute inflammatory lesions that are not excessively deep, punch debridement (ie, excision with a 5- to 7-mm punch instrument followed by digital debridement and curettage or scrubbing) is preferable. Sinus tracts should be unroofed and debrided. Patients whose lesions are deeper should be evaluated by a plastic surgeon for consideration of excision and grafting.

For Hurley Stage III disease, medical and surgical therapy should be more aggressive. Evidence of efficacy in reducing inflammation is strongest for infliximab (5 mg/kg IV at weeks 0, 2, and 6). Alternatively, adalimumab may be given (initial dose of 160 mg subcutaneously given in 1 day or split over 2 consecutive days, followed by 1 dose of 80 mg subcutaneously on day 15 and maintenance doses of 40 mg subcutaneously once a week beginning on day 29). Oral retinoids (isotretinoin 0.25 to 0.4 mg/kg 2 times a day for 4 to 6 months or acitretin 0.6 mg/kg once a day for 9 to 12 months) have been effective in some patients. Wide surgical excision and repair or grafting of the affected areas is often necessary if the disease persists. Ablative laser therapy (CO2 or erbium:YAG) is an alternate surgical treatment. Laser hair removal has also been used with some success.

Recommended adjunctive measures for all patients with hidradenitis suppurativa include maintaining good skin hygiene, minimizing trauma, providing psychologic support, and possibly avoiding high glycemic load diets.

Key Points

  • Lesions are usually sterile except for deep abscesses and sinus tracts in chronic disease.

  • Hidradenitis suppurativa can be disabling.

  • Treat hidradenitis suppurativa based on the Hurley staging system.

  • Adjunctive measures include maintaining good skin hygiene, minimizing trauma, providing psychologic support, and possibly avoiding a high glycemic load diet.

Drugs Mentioned In This Article

Drug Name Select Trade
Cleocin, Cleocin Ovules, Cleocin Pediatric, Cleocin T, CLIN, Clindacin ETZ, Clindacin-P, Clinda-Derm , Clindagel, ClindaMax, ClindaReach, Clindesse, Clindets, Evoclin, PledgaClin, XACIATO
Aristocort, Aristocort A, Aristocort Forte, Aristocort HP, Aristo-Pak, Aristospan, Azmacort, Children's Nasacort Allergy 24HR Nasal Spray, Cinalog, Cinolar, Flutex, Hexatrione, Kenalog, Kenalog in Orabase, Kenalog-10, Kenalog-40, Kenalog-80, Nasacort, Nasacort AQ, Oralone, SP Rx 228 , Tac-3 , Triacet , Triamonide , Trianex , Triderm , Triesence, XIPERE, Zilretta
Emtet-500, Panmycin, Sumycin
Acticlate, Adoxa, Adoxa Pak, Avidoxy, Doryx, Doxal, Doxy 100, LYMEPAK, Mondoxyne NL, Monodox, Morgidox 1x, Morgidox 2x , Okebo, Oracea, Oraxyl, Periostat, TARGADOX, Vibramycin, Vibra-Tabs
Amzeeq, Arestin, Dynacin, Minocin, minolira, Myrac, Solodyn, Ximino, Zilxi
A/T/S, Akne-mycin, E.E.S., Emcin Clear , EMGEL, E-Mycin, ERYC, Erycette, Eryderm , Erygel, Erymax, EryPed, Ery-Tab, Erythra Derm , Erythrocin, Erythrocin Lactobionate, Erythrocin Stearate, Ilosone, Ilotycin, My-E, PCE, PCE Dispertab , Romycin, Staticin, T-Stat
Acne Medication, Acne-10, Acneclear, Benprox , Benzac AC, Benzac W, Benzac-10, Benzac-5, Benzagel, Benzagel-10 , Benzagel-5, BenzaShave, BenzEFoam, BenzEFoam Ultra , BenzePrO, Benziq, Benziq LS, BP Cleanser, BP Cleansing Lotion, BP Foaming Wash, BP Gel, BP Topical , BP Wash, BP Wash Kit, BPO, BPO Creamy Wash, BPO Foaming Cloth, Brevoxyl-4, Brevoxyl-8, Clean&Clear Persa-Gel, Clearplex , Clearplex X, Clearskin, Clinac BPO, Del Aqua, Delos, Desquam-E, Desquam-X, EFFACLAR, Enzoclear, EPSOLAY, Ethexderm BPW, Inova Easy Pad, Lavoclen-4 , Lavoclen-8, NeoBenz Micro, NeoBenz Micro Cream Plus Pack, NeoBenz Micro SD, NeoBenz Micro Wash Plus Pack, Neutrogena Acne Cream, OC8, Oscion, Pacnex, Pacnex HP, Pacnex LP, Pacnex MX, PanOxyl, PanOxyl 10 Maximum Strength, PanOxyl 5, PanOxyl AQ, PanOxyl Aqua, PanOxyl-10, PanOxyl-5, PanOxyl-8, Peroderm, RE Benzoyl Peroxide , Riax, SE BPO, Seba, Seba-Gel, Soluclenz Rx , Theroxide, TL BPO MX, Triaz, True Marker Lintera, Zaclir, Zoderm Cleanser , Zoderm Cream, Zoderm Gel, Zoderm Redi-Pads , Zoderm Wash
Rifadin, Rifadin IV, Rimactane
Aldactone, CAROSPIR
Propecia, Proscar
Absorica, Absorica LD, Accutane, Amnesteem , Claravis , MYORISAN, Sotret, ZENATANE
NOTE: This is the Professional Version. CONSUMERS: View Consumer Version
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