(See also Overview of Head and Neck Tumors Overview of Head and Neck Tumors Head and neck cancer develops in almost 65,000 people in the United States each year. Excluding skin and thyroid cancers, > 90% of head and neck cancers are squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinomas... read more .)
Although rare in the US, PNS cancer is more common in Japan and among the Bantu people of South Africa. Men over 40 years are affected most often.
The cause is uncertain, but chronic sinusitis Sinusitis Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses due to viral, bacterial, or fungal infections or allergic reactions. Symptoms include nasal obstruction and congestion, purulent rhinorrhea... read more is not believed to be a cause. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play a role in some cases. Risk factors include
Because the sinuses provide room for the cancer to grow, symptoms usually do not develop until the cancer is well advanced. The following symptoms result from local pressure of the cancer on adjacent structures:
Tumor is sometimes visible in the oral or nasal cavities.
Treatment for most early-stage PNS cancers is complete surgical excision. Recent advances in surgical techniques, particularly endoscopic techniques, can sometimes achieve complete tumor excisions, spare surrounding tissues, and achieve reconstruction. If risk of recurrence is high, radiation therapy is given postoperatively. If surgical excision is not realistic or would cause excessive morbidity, radiotherapy plus chemotherapy may be used. In some cases, chemotherapy is given to shrink the tumor; if the tumor responds well to the chemotherapy, it is resected surgically. If not, the tumor can be treated with radiation.
The following English-language resource may be useful. Please note that THE MANUAL is not responsible for the content of this resource.
National Cancer Institute’s Summary: Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment