(See also Inguinal hernia in neonates Inguinal Hernia in Neonates Inguinal hernias develop most often in male neonates, particularly if they are preterm (in which case the incidence is about 10%). The right side is affected most commonly, and about 10% of... read more .)
About 75% of all abdominal wall hernias Hernias of the Abdominal Wall A hernia of the abdominal wall is a protrusion of the abdominal contents through an acquired or congenital area of weakness or defect in the wall. Many hernias are asymptomatic, but some become... read more are inguinal.
Classification of Inguinal Hernia
Inguinal hernias occur above the inguinal ligament. They can be
Indirect: Traversing the internal inguinal ring into the inguinal canal
Direct: Extending directly forward and not passing through the inguinal canal
Symptoms and Signs of Inguinal Hernia
Most patients complain of only a visible bulge, which may cause vague discomfort or be asymptomatic. They can often reduce the size of the bulge by pushing it back through the defect in the abdominal wall.
An incarcerated hernia cannot be reduced and can be the cause of a bowel obstruction.
A strangulated hernia causes steady, gradually increasing pain, typically with nausea and vomiting. The hernia itself is tender, and the overlying skin may be erythematous; peritonitis may develop depending on location, with diffuse tenderness, guarding, and rebound.
Diagnosis of Inguinal Hernia
The diagnosis of an inguinal hernia is clinical. Because the hernia may be apparent only when abdominal pressure is increased, the patient should be examined in a standing position. If no hernia is palpable, the patient should cough or perform a Valsalva maneuver as the examiner palpates the groin (with a finger in the inguinal canal in males).
Most hernias, even large ones, can be manually reduced with persistent gentle pressure; placing the patient in the Trendelenburg position may help.
Inguinal masses that resemble hernias may be the result of adenopathy (infectious or malignant), an ectopic testis, or lipoma. These masses are solid and are not reducible. A scrotal mass may be a varicocele Etiology A painless scrotal mass is often noticed by the patient but may be an incidental finding on routine physical examination. Scrotal pain and painful scrotal masses or swelling can be caused by... read more , hydrocele Etiology A painless scrotal mass is often noticed by the patient but may be an incidental finding on routine physical examination. Scrotal pain and painful scrotal masses or swelling can be caused by... read more , or testicular tumor Testicular Cancer Testicular cancer begins as a scrotal mass, which is usually not painful. Diagnosis is by ultrasonography. Treatment is with orchiectomy and sometimes lymph node dissection, radiation therapy... read more . Ultrasonography may be done if physical examination is equivocal.
Treatment of Inguinal Hernia
Inguinal hernias typically should be repaired electively because of the risk of strangulation, which results in higher morbidity (and possible mortality in older patients). Asymptomatic inguinal hernias in men can be observed; if symptoms develop, they can be repaired electively. Repair may be through a standard incision or laparoscopically.
An incarcerated or strangulated hernia of any kind requires urgent surgical repair.
Inguinal hernias can be direct or indirect.
Manifestations of strangulation include increasing pain and tenderness, sometimes erythema; peritonitis may follow.
Do elective surgical repair to avoid strangulation and urgent surgery.