(See also Overview of Vaginitis Overview of Vaginitis Vaginitis is infectious or noninfectious inflammation of the vaginal mucosa, sometimes with inflammation of the vulva. Symptoms include vaginal discharge, irritation, pruritus, and erythema... read more .)
In patients with inflammatory vaginitis, vaginal epithelial cells slough superficially, and streptococci overgrow.
Inflammatory vaginitis occurs and recurs most commonly in patients who become hypoestrogenic due to menopause Menopause Menopause is the permanent cessation of menses (amenorrhea) due to loss of ovarian follicular function. Clinical manifestations may include hot flushes, night sweats, sleep disruption, and genitourinary... read more or primary ovarian insufficiency Primary Ovarian Insufficiency In primary ovarian insufficiency, ovaries do not regularly release eggs and do not produce enough sex hormones despite high levels of circulating gonadotropins (especially follicle-stimulating... read more (premature ovarian failure—eg, due to autoimmune disease, oophorectomy, pelvic radiation, or chemotherapy). The etiology may be autoimmune.
Symptoms and Signs of Inflammatory Vaginitis
Purulent vaginal discharge, dyspareunia, dysuria, and vaginal irritation are common. Vaginal pruritus and erythema may occur. Burning, pain, or mild bleeding occurs less often. Vaginal tissue may appear thin and dry. Vaginitis may recur.
Patients who are postmenopausal or those with premature ovarian insufficiency may also have signs and symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (eg, vulvovaginal atrophy, urinary urgency, dysuria).
Diagnosis of Inflammatory Vaginitis
Vaginal pH and wet mount
Symptoms of inflammatory vaginitis overlap with other forms of vaginitis, and a general evaluation (eg, vaginal fluid pH measurement, microscopy, whiff test) should be performed.
Inflammatory vaginitis is diagnosed if
Vaginal fluid pH is > 6.
Whiff test is negative.
Microscopy shows predominantly white blood cells and parabasal cells.
The pelvic examination should include evaluation for characteristic findings of vulvovaginal atrophy (eg, labia minora resorption or fusion, tissue fragility, pallor, loss of vaginal rugae).
Treatment of Inflammatory Vaginitis
Clindamycin 2% vaginal cream
Treatment of inflammatory vaginitis is with clindamycin 2% vaginal cream 5 g every evening for 2 weeks.
Genital atrophy, if present, can be treated with topical estrogen such as the following:
0.01% estradiol vaginal cream 2 to 4 g (once a day for 1 to 2 weeks), followed by 1 to 2 g (once a day for 1 to 2 weeks), then 1 g (1 to 3 times weekly)
Estradiol vaginal tablets 4 or 10 mcg twice a week
Estradiol ring (releases approximately 7.5 mcg/d) every 3 months
Topical estrogen therapy is usually preferred for genitourinary syndrome of menopause, because it is more effective for this indication and has lower risk of adverse effects than systemic menopausal hormone therapy.
Drugs Mentioned In This Article
|Drug Name||Select Trade|
|Cleocin, Cleocin Ovules, Cleocin Pediatric, Cleocin T, CLIN, Clindacin ETZ, Clindacin-P, Clinda-Derm , Clindagel, ClindaMax, ClindaReach, Clindesse, Clindets, Evoclin, PledgaClin, XACIATO|
|Alora, Climara, Delestrogen, Depgynogen, Depo-Estradiol, Depogen, Divigel, DOTTI, Elestrin, Esclim, Estrace, Estraderm, Estrasorb, Estring, EstroGel, Evamist, FemPatch, Femring, Femtrace, Gynodiol , Gynogen LA, Imvexxy, LYLLANA, Menostar, Minivelle, Vagifem, Valergen, Vivelle, Vivelle-Dot, Yuvafem|